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Scouting in Hungary 




HUNGARIAN SCOUT ASSOCIATION 



88/19/14 



ALBERT B. ALKEK U 
Southwest Texas $u p ; 
San Marcos, Texas 78t*L: 



Gdbor Bodndr: 
SCOUTING IN HUNGARY 



GABOR BODNAR 



SCOUTING 
IN HUNGARY 




HUNGARIAN SCOUT ASSOCIATION 
1986 



ALBERT B. ALKEK LIBRARY 
Southwest Texas State Uftften-to 
m Marcos, Texas 7$$4iaJ| 



Excerpts Background Notes — Hungary 

Population: 10.6 million (June, 1986). Capital: Budapest. 

Hungary 's national flag consists of three horizontal bands — red, 
white, and green from top to bottom. 

The People — Approximately two-thirds of the population are 
Roman Catholic; most of the remainder are Protestant (Calvinist, Luthe- 
ran, Unitarian, and other). More than 98 per cent of the people are 
literate. 

The country's only important ethnic minorities are the Germans 
(about 240*000) and the Slovaks (about 27,000). 

History — The Hungarian people traditionally have considered 
themselves an integral part of Western Europe and the eastern outpost of 
Western civilization in Europe. Hungary was a monarchy for nearly 
1,000 years, and its constitutional-parliamentary system preceded by 
several centuries the establishment of such Western-type governments in 
other East European countries. 

Sharing the defeat of the Austro- Hungarian monarchy. Hungary lost 
the greater part of its territory and population at the end of World War L 



Printed by Classic Printing Corporation, 9527 Madison Avenue. Cleveland, Ohio 44102, U.S. A. 



/ wish to express my sincere gratitude to 
Dr. George Nemethy for the critical reading of the 
text and for many helpful comments, as well as to 
Mrs. Judith Nemethy- Kesseru for compiling 
much of the material contained in the chapter 
dealing with Girl Scouting in Hungary. 

I am also grateful to Mrs. Maria Benedek, Dr. 
Bela Mdday, Mrs. Marilyn McNamara, Ms. Ju- 
dith Pal and Mrs. Susan Pap-Subrits for their 
assistance with translating and editing the text. 



Contents 



Foreword , 7 

I. The Beginnings of Scouting in Hungary 9 

First Steps 9 

The Vag River Rafting Expedition 13 

Scouting During World War I , 14 

II. Reorganization After World War 1 17 

Milestones of the Early Twenties 17 

The Second World Jamboree 23 

The First Hungarian National Jamboree 25 

Scouting Institutions and Activities 31 

III. The Hungarian Girl Scouts , 36 

IV. Growth and Expansion 41 

The Third World Jamboree 41 

The Young Adult Program 47 

The Fourth World Jamboree in Hungary 48 

The Chief Scout's Farewell 69 

V. New Directions 70 

Internal Renewal 70 

Successes Abroad 74 

Scouting and Young Workers 78 

Minority Scouts 79 

Reunion with the Scouts of Northern Hungary 80 

Scouting in Transylvania 81 

Scouts in Southern Hungary 82 

Scouts Serve at the Eucharistic Congress . . , 84 

VI. At the Crossroads 85 

The Abrahamhegy Conference 85 

Weathering the Storm 90 

The Final Years 94 

The Disbanding 97 

The Pax-Ting 101 



FOREWORD 



Scouting in Hungary enjoyed extraordinary popularity, from 
its very beginnings in 1910 to its forcible dissolution by the Com- 
munist government in 1948. Between the two World Wars, it 
was the most influential educational institution of the country. 
The Scouting ideals of Baden- Powell found their way rapidly 
into the hearts of Hungarian youth, and they were endorsed by 
the most dedicated educators of the country. The combination 
of unfailing idealism and of expertise in scouting practice singled 
out Hungarian scouts at innumerable international gatherings 
and resulted in the selection of Hungary as the host of the Fourth 
World Jamboree in 1933. This gathering became one of the most 
successful of all World Jamborees. Scouting was endorsed by 
respected public figures. First and foremost among them was 
Pal Teleki, the internationally renowned professor of geography 
and statesman who also served Hungary repeatedly as Prime 
Minister. Beyond all his numerous duties and honors, he devoted 
himself to Scouting. He joined young people to live the life of a 
scout. He was also one of the esteemed leaders of the World 
Scout movement. 

What was the secret of the success of Hungarian Scouting? 
What were the external conditions under which Scouting in 
Hungary was born, grew, and flourished? What were the tribu- 
lations that led to its present-day suppression? Above all, what 
were the internal sources of spiritual strength that served the 
movement during the three decades of its existence within Hun- 
gary? This book seeks to answer these questions. It does not do 
so in the form of a scholarly historical treatise. Instead, it provides 
a colorful picture of the activities of Hungarian scouts and scout 
leaders, their ideals and achievements, and the background of 
historical events. In short, it reflects life and it is born of experi- 
ence of the inner spirit of scouting. 

Nobody could be more qualified to write such a book than 
Gdbor Bodndr. He has devoted his entire life to Hungarian 
Scouting, starting in Hungary, where he became scoutmaster 
at the age of 19, served on the leader training team a year later, 
and was elected into the National Council of the movement when 



7 



he was 22. After leaving Hungary in 1945, he was one of the small 
group of scout leaders who revived scouting activities among 
Hungarian youth in the refugee camps. Ever since, he has served 
unceasingly by organizing and directing the Hungarian Scout 
Association first as its Chief Commissioner and then as Executive 
President. He possesses an expert knowledge of activities, orga- 
nization, and history, but more importantly, he is an active par- 
ticipant of a momentous era of Hungarian Scouting in Hungary 
and abroad. Everybody who is interested in the development of 
the World Scouting Movement can be grateful to him for making 
this history available to us. 

There is one pervasive theme that appears throughout the 
book: if Scouting in Hungary was successful as an educational 
tool, this happened because of the enthusiasm of the scouts and the 
selfless service and sense of responsibility of the leaders. Let this 
theme inspire present-day scouters everywhere. 

George Nemethy 

President of the 
Hungarian Scouts Association 



8 



L 

THE BEGINNINGS OF SCOUTING 
IN HUNGARY 



First Steps 

The Scouting movement had its origins in a small-scale 
summer camp, held by Robert S. S, Baden-Powell on Brownsea 
Island in England in August, 1907. Baden- Poweirs initiative 
represented a radically new direction in the ideals and practice of 
youth education. Drawing on experience, imagination, peda- 
gogical sense, and a deep understanding of youngsters, Baden- 
Powell conceived of a training system for youth that was based on 
sound principles of character and moral education, combined with 
practical outdoor training and emphasis on self-reliance. The 
system was perfused with romantic appeal and with opportunities 
for interesting activities. Baden- Powell also recognized the deep- 
felt need of teenage boys to gang up into small peer-groups, as well 
as the positive influence of a gang-leader who himself is hardly 
older than the members of the group. He turned this insight into 
practice by instituting the patrol as the basic autonomous orga- 
nizational form of scouting. No wonder that the Scouting idea 
spread rapidly, especially after the publication of a handbook, 
Scouting for Boys, in 1908, written by Baden-Powell in an 
enormously readable style. In 1909, Baden-Powell went on a 
continental tour with a British "Boy Scout" troop. They visited 
Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France, in effect sowing 
the seeds of scouting on the Continent. 

In Hungary, the ideals of the movement and an outline of 
Baden-PoweH's book were reviewed less than two years after its 
publication in the 1910 yearbook of a boys' secondary school in 
Nagybecskerek. Both Catholic and Protestant educators viewed 
scouting as an effective new tool in the training of teenage boys. 
The first scout troop in Hungary was organized under the auspices 
of the YMCA in Budapest (Budapest! Reformatus Ifjusagi 
Egyesiilet) by Aladar Szilassy Jr., a physician. While traveling 
in England, he became acquainted with scouting and upon his 



9 



return decided to reorganize teenage activities for the YMCA 
along scouting lines. He began with an experimental scout troop 
of peasant boys, organized with the help of Gusztav Vizsoly on the 
latter's estate. The results were encouraging and he soon organized 
a troop in Budapest. The first troop consisted of two patrols, and 
its work was based on the directives spelled out in Scouting for 
Boys. The YMCA magazine Ifjusdg (Youth) dealt extensively with 
the scouting movement. 

The following year, Istvan Kanitz formed a troop at the Kirdlyi 
Katholikus Fogimndzium (Royal Catholic Secondary School) in 
Budapest. Concurrently, several articles appeared in the youth 
periodical Zdszlonk (Our Flag), edited by Alajos Izsof, detailing 
and praising the work of the scouting movement The poet 
Sandor Sik and the educator Kalman Radvanyi, among others, 
expounded on the virtues of scouting and on its use as an 
educational tool. These dedicated individuals and others like them 
founded the troops of the Piarista Fogimndzium (Piarist 
Secondary School) and Regnum Marianum Parish in Budapest, 
both of which flourished until the disbanding of the Scouting 
movement in 1948. 

Thanks to the editorials of Zdszlonk, the scouting movement 
gained strong moral and religious direction as well as credibility in 
the eyes of the public. While the scouting movement in England 
was directed mainly at youth not reached by schools, and 
emphasized its outreach for poverty-stricken youth of city streets, 
in Hungary it appealed chiefly to school boys. Youngsters in 
Hungary welcomed the challenge of demanding tasks in scouting. 
They did not mind getting up early in the morning and going 
on long outings under adverse weather conditions; they were 
not afraid of the dark. At the same time, they were enthusiastic 
about discovering the secrets of nature at first hand. 

The international reputation of scouting was augmented by 
an international gathering of scouts held during the 1 9 1 2 Olympics 
in Stockholm. In that year of heightened public interest in 
scouting, Hungarian troop leaders assembled by Gyula Papp on 
December 28 adopted the text of the Hungarian scout laws and 
founded the Magyar Cserkesz Szdvetseg (Hungarian Scout As- 
sociation) as the main coordinating body for scouting activities in 
the country. The association was led by Alajos Izsof, Bela 
Megyercsy, Gyula Papp, and Sandor Sik. 



10 



The Hungarian version of the scout laws reads as follows: 


i. 


A scout is honest and truthful under all circumstances. 


2. 


A scout faithfully carries out his duties towards God, 




country and fellow man. 


3. 


A scout is helpful 


4. 


A scout regards every scout as his brother. 


5. 


A scout is lenient towards others and strict towards 




himself 


6. 


A scout respects nature, is kind to animals, and 




protects plants. 


7 


A scout obeys his superiors willingly and whole- 




heartedly. 


ft 


A scout is cheerful and considerate. 


9. 


A scout practices thrift. 


10. 


A scout is clean in body and mind. 




Patrols in one of the first troops 



II 



Baden-Powell's genius was evident in the fact that scouting 
could be adapted to the particular cultural identity and heritage 
of every nation. It appeared as if scouting had been the product 
of each and every country in which it took root. In Hungary, 
scouting was imbued initially with British cultural patterns, but 
gradually it developed its own distinct and unique characteristics. 
It continued to identify with the basic scout ideals of Baden-Powell; 
namely, character development and citizenship training. It went 
beyond this, though, in striving to become the champion of 
a spiritual revival of the nation. This aim was of high priority for 
the Hungarian leaders. Despite the fact that the country was 
prosperous, there were many signs that tranquility was coming 
to an end. It became fashionable in many circles to attack the 
traditional values of family, church, and country under the guise 
of "progress," replacing the ideals with limitless libertinism. At 
the same time and within the context of increasing nationalist 
movements in Europe, separatist movements encouraged by 
neighbouring countries arose among the various non-Hungarian 
nationalities of Hungary. Thus, the establishment of scouting, 
promoting mutual understanding and brotherly love among 
young people, was a godsend, 

The Hungarian scout movement faced many initial obstacles. 
Many Hungarians opposed scouting altogether. Some disliked 
it beause of its ostensible circumvention of the official educational 
system, others because of its religious and national character. 
Many critics pointed to German militaristic youth organizations 
as a superior system to be emulated. Supporters of the latter, 
mainly some elementary and high-school teachers from Budapest, 
founded the Magyar Orszem Szdvetseg (Hungarian Guard 
Association). 

In the early days of scouting, it was not always pleasant to wear 
a scout uniform in public. Scouts were subjected to name-calling 
and even rock throwing, and the sight of teenage boys wearing 
shorts and carrying huge walking sticks startled adults and fright- 
small children. 

Scout uniforms and equipment had been imported from 
England at first. Each patrol wore a scarf of a different color, and 
the five or six patrols of a troop were a colorful sight to behold. 
Even the most altruistic movements need some advertising, and so 
some members wore their uniforms to school. The first member- 



12 



ship drive took place during the Christmas vacation of 1912, 
when a patrol leader, Pal Kanitz, contacted a number of families 
and offered their boys free membership on a trial basis. When 
the experiment was over, he had succeeded in increasing the 
membership of his troop by nineteen boys. 

The Guard Association, despite its healthier financial condition 
and the support it received from influential citizens, proved unable 
to proventthe dynamic growth of the scouting movement. The two 
organizations merged in June 1913 as the Cserkesz Orszem Szd- 
vetseg (Scout Guard Association). Spiritual orientation was 
provided by the scouts, while the guards were in charge of 
recruiting and organization. The long, awkward name never 
caught on, and everyone continued to refer to the group simply as 
the scouts. 

The troops of Pest held their first Scout Field Day in March, 
1913, in the Museum Park. Although the popularity of scouting 
increased daily, many persons viewed it with reservations. In order 
to win them over, the scouts decided to hold a momentous event 
which would serve as proof of their credibility as an organization. 



The Vdg River Rafting Expedition 

The Vag River expedition took place in 1913 between Kralovan 
(now in Czechoslovakia) and Komarom (in Northern Hungary), 
a distance of some 200 kilometers, The majority of the participants 
came from Budapest but twelve other cities were represented. The 
expedition was carried on six rafts, each made of two 9x10 meter 
platforms that were joined together. Cooking, eating, and sleeping 
took place on the rafts, one of which was even equipped with 
a covered dining area. At night the rafts were tied up to the shore. 
Each raft was named after a bird. 

It rained heavily for the first ten days of the seventeen-day trip. 
The river overflowed its banks at many points, and it took a great 
deal of know-how to navigate the vessels through the treacherous 
swollen river currents. A number of interesting events took place 
along the way. The take-off saw a gun salute and the people of 
Kralovan lining the banks of the river. The inhabitants of a poor 
village invited all the members of the expedition to lunch, con- 



13 




Route of the Vdg river rafting expedition, and the steersman of a raft. 



sisting of lentil stew and hard-boiled eggs. On another occasion, 
they were guests of a nobleman. The expedition reached the native 
village of its leader, Alajos Izsof, on his birthday, and he invited all 
the scouts to his home to toast the occasion. 



Scouting during World War I 

The scouting movement became a nationally recognized 
organization by the time of the outbreak of World War I. Organiz- 
ing committees and troops had been established in most parts of 
Hungary. The movement survived during the war years, even 
though its activities were hampered. It was left without a central 
coordinating body when its leaders were drafted into military 
service. Many of the founders gave their lives in the service of their 
country. Membership fell drastically. Nevertheless, the ideals of 
scouting continued to inspire youth even during the war. Scouts 



14 



Title page of the Scout magazine Magyar Cserkesz featuring the lead raft 
of the Vdg river expedition 



volunteered their services at hospitals, first-aid posts, and railway 
stations. They collected funds for the wounded and aided the 
resettlement of refugees. The Piarist troop in Budapest established 
and operated an information center for refugees when Rumania 



15 



invaded Transylvania. Over 20,000 families were reunited through 
the efforts of the center. 

Several new scout magazines were founded during the war. The 
Hungarian Scout Association was reestablished at the end of the 
war on December I, 1918. Next spring, however, the communist 
government of Bela Kun forcibly abolished the movement. It saw 
clearly that the ideals of scouting were as much the opposite of its 
ideology as is water to fire. Many formal features of scouting were 
adopted by the communist youth movement, the Pioneers. Thus, 
members of the new movement were to use the scout salute, but 
with five extended fingers instead of three, to symbolize the unity 
of the proletariat on five continents. The regime did not last long 
enough to accomplish a complete takeover of scouting. Many 
scout troops persisted, maintaining their allegiance to religion 
and national heritage. Small units, usually patrols, continued to 
hold meetings in private homes. 



16 



II. 

REORGANIZATION 
AFTER WORLD WAR I 

Milestones of the Early Twenties 

Following the fall of the Kun regime, the Scout Association 
was again reorganized on September 21, 1919. Arpad Ravasz 
became its first president, followed by Sandor Sik (1921 — 22) 
and then Bela Witz. The new leaders had to adopt new by-laws 
and reach an agreement on national organization and leader- 
ship. Rules were issued with regard to organizing commit- 
tees, troop formation, and examinations and procedures re- 
quired for certification as a scout leader. The Vezetok Konyve 
(Leaders 1 Handbook), edited by Sandor Sik, was published in 
1922 as a theoretical and practical manual for troop leaders. This 
volume was so successful that numerous national scout organi- 
zations translated it into their own languages. Training camps 
for Scoutmasters were held regularly from 1924 on, following the 
Gilwell system. Maintaining unity in spiritual matters, one of 
the most important tasks was accomplished without problems. 
Both Catholic and Protestant church leaders of the nation en- 
thusiastically supported the scouting movement. Laszlo Ravasz, 
the outstanding Bishop of the Reformed Church, praised it 
eloquently, stressing its versatility, healthy educational aims, and 
moral principles. Religious tolerance among Hungarian Scouts 
was highlighted by Colonel John S. Wilson, former Director of 
the Boy Scouts International Bureau, in his book, "Scouting 
Round the World": 

"The inter-religious principle of Scouting was illustrated in a 
remarkable manner in an overwhelmingly Roman Catholic Hun- 
gary. The two sons of the Protestant Regent, Admiral Horthy, 
were Scouts in a Catholic Troop. The Hungarian Roman Catholic 
Bishops Conference set an example in permitting priests to wear 
shorts while engaged in their voluntary Scout work. The original 
request was put forward by the Hungarian Deputy Camp Chief 
— a Lutheran, and supported by the Bishop of Szekesfehervar — 
a Scoutmaster. Incidentally, the Deputy Camp Chief, Fritz de 
Molnar, held a Commissioner's warrant for fifteen years before 
anyone at Scout Headquarters asked to what faith he belonged 

17 



The new by-laws greatly facilitated countrywide organization. 
The duties of the executive were detailed and a central office was 
established. By 1922, the management structure of the organi- 
zation had been established and an effective system of troop in- 
spection and certification was initiated. Outstanding leaders in this 
crucial period were Arpad Ravasz, Sandor Sik, Bela Witz, Gyozo 
Temesy, Laszlo Gero, Sandor Karacsony, Ede Farago, Gyula 
Zsembery, Dezso Major, Frigyes Molnar, Sandor Borsiczky, 
and Emil Ery. 

The national importance of the movement was considerably 
enhanced by the affiliation of the formerly independent Scouts 
Association of Western Hungary, led by Oszkar Selkey, Ferenc 
Farkas, and others. In 1921, the association had organized the 
first major scout gathering at Tapolca, with the participation 
of more than a thousand scouts from thirty troops. Upon its in- 
corporation into the Hungarian Scout Association in 1922, it 
became District 3 of the organization. 

Another milestone was the publication, in June, 1920, of the 
first issue of Magyar Cserkesz (Hungarian Scouts), under the 
editorship of Gyozo Temesy (Herman). By 1924, the Vezetok 
Lap/a (Leaders Journal) was also appearing regularly. Soon, 
the organization established a separate publishing house for its 
periodicals and books. The Magyar Cserkeszek Termeld es Er- 
tekesito Szbvetkezete (Hungarian Scout Productions and Sales 
Cooperative) was created to provide troops and individual scouts 
with uniforms, equipment, and literature. It soon became an 
economically viable institution which was able to lend financial 
assistance to the organization. 

By the early twenties, numerous troops operated in most cities 
of Hungary, and thousands of enthusiastic boys joined the 
movement. Parents and children alike felt an urgent need for the 
physical and spiritual discipline provided by scouting, especially 
in counteracting the detrimental effects of the war. Sea scouting 
was started. In the summer of that year, a group of sea scouts 
led by Gyula Zsembery embarked on an exciting 1,000-kilometer 
river expedition along many waterways: the Danube, Sio, Kapos, 
Zala, Raba, Lajta rivers and Lake Balaton. 

In May, 1920, Magyar Cserkesz sponsored the first large-scale 
szdmhdboru (field games) in the Buda hills, with eight hundred 
scouts participating. This event was followed by a parade in Buda- 



18 



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Title page of the September, 1922, issue of Magyar Cserk&sz carrying 
a portrait of Count Pal Teleki, the first Chief Scout of Hungary 
and the text of his letter of appointment. 

19 



pest that included the first appearance of a scout marching band. 
The first national scout exhibition was held in Budapest, in 1922. 
It included representatives of 36 troops from ten cities. 

The most significant event of 1922 was the appointment of 
Focserkesz (Chief Scout) in the person of Count Pal Teleki, 
a prominent professor of geography and geopolitics and former 
prime minister. Teleki held the office for only one year and was 
succeeded by Count Karoly Khuen-Hedervary. Teleki remained 
honorary Chief Scout and continued as the most influential sup- 
porter of the scouting movement. 

The scouting movement celebrated its tenth anniversary some- 
what belatedly in the spring of !923, with athletic competitions 
on a national level, a leaders' congress and a national scout ex- 
hibition. Over ten thousand scouts camped during the year, many 
of them in Sea Scout camps. Scout troops toured much of the 
country. 

Completion of organizational work on the internal structure 
of the movement was signaled by the establishment often national 
scouting districts. Founding of a Grand Council ensured relations 
with the public. Council members were chosen from outstanding 
personalities of the nation, with the aim of providing a sound 
supporting base for the the scouting movement. The first president 
of the council was Prince Albrecht of Hapsburg. 

The Hungarian scouting movement initiated contacts with 
scouting organizations abroad, first of all with the International 
Scout Bureau in London. The Hungarians had been invited to 
the First World Scout Jamboree in England in 1920 but were 
unable to send a delegation because of financial difficulties. 

With financial assistance from Pal Teleki, the marching band 
troop No. 18 traveled to Kent, England, in 1922. A threemem- 
ber delegation from Hungary, led by Sandor Sik, participated 
at the first world scout conference in Paris. Thereafter, Hungarian 
scouts frequently visited other countries. Traveling scouts were 
aware of the fact that they were acting as emissaries of their home- 
land. They took it upon themselves to improve Hungary's repu- 
tation abroad and to enlighten foreigners about the injustices of 
the Trianon Peace Treaty. 

Troop activity flourished throughout this trailblazing era. 
Leaders and scouts excelled in the service of the movement, far 
beyond the call of duty. An outstanding leader of this period 

20 




was Ede Farago, who traveled all over the country visiting schools 
and recruiting students and teachers. He singlehandedly organized 
more troops than all others combined. Boys under the age of 
twelve were organized into junior or cub scout troops, also called 
aprddok (pages). 




Greeting card of the "Swallow" troop in celebration 
of its tenth anniversary. 

The success of the movement was evidenced not only by the 
number of new troops, but even more by the widespread accep- 
tance of the social attitudes it advocated and practiced. Everyone 
saw that scouts did not differentiate between a blue-collar 
apprentice, a secondary school pupil, a peasant, or a university 
student. They all worked in harmony. The scouting movement 
aimed at breaking down social barriers and religious and class 
distinctions then prevalent in Hungary. This was one of its most 
significant contributions, made as a response to national concerns. 

Alongside the expanding boy scout movement. Girl Scouting 
started to flourish in Hungary. At first, many outsiders doubted 
its feasibility. Critics viewed the Girl Scouts merely as an organi- 
zation that simply emulated the activities of boys. It was feared 
that the demanding discipline on the one hand and the bold 
independence prevalent in scouting on the other hand would 
not be proper for girls. Girl Scout troops functioned for two 



22 



A Girl Scout iroop in 1922. 



years within the framework of the Hungarian Scout Association. 
They constituted an independent organization in 1922. The 
two movements complemented each other. The Girl Scouts 
developed their own training program. It was adapted to the 
psychological needs of teenage girls, serving their development 
to become creative, independent, and responsible women, wives, 
and mothers. Girl Scouts wore a uniform of their own and were 
organized into separate troops led by female leaders. The scout 
sign, the scout law, and the oath were the same for both Boy 
and Girl Scouts, The Magyar Cserkesz magazine carried a 
separate section for Girl Scouts, edited by Jolan Gerely. 



The Second World Jamboree 

The first and decisive meeting with scouts of other countries 
took place at the Second World Jamboree in Copenhagen in 
1924. The Jamboree was patterned after the Olympic Games 



23 



as a world scout championship. Each country could send 48 scouts 
(six patrols) with four escorting leaders to take part in the compe- 
tition. The Hungarian contingent, which trained for about six 
months before the event, was designed to include boys with 
diverse backgrounds. They were selected from troops affiliated 
with secondary schools, with industrial plants, and with religious 
organizations. Training emphasized teamwork above individual 
achievement. Proper manner and demeanor, as well as discipline, 
received much attention. 

The Hungarian contingent arrived in Denmark on August 9, 
1924, escorted by Gyozo Temesy, Pal Sztrilich, Ede Farago, 
and the Chief Scout, Count Karoly Kuhen-Hedervary. Nobody 
expected much of the simply dressed, modest Hungarian scouts, 
but they distinguished themselves from the first days of the 
Jamboree by their discipline and spirit of fellowship. They were 
inventive and quick in solving the various problems presented 
in the course of the competitions. They were particularly ef- 
fective when a combination of thoughtfulness, spirit, and in- 
novation was called for. They finished third in the competition 
of the nations, behind the United States and England. 

They took the first prizes in camp routine, campfire enter- 
tainment, and the Scout contest that consisted of observation, 
deduction, estimation, tracking, and first aid. They placed second 
in swimming (which included diving and water safety), canoe 
trip, and camp-craft, fourth in national folk dances, fifth in the 
twenty-four hour hike and in songs and yells, sixth in outward 
appearance, and eighth in the patrol obstacle course. 

Sandor Sik's eye-witness report illustrates one of the episodes 
of the Jamboree: 

"An enormous thunderstorm drenched Copenhagen just 
as Baden-Powell arrived. Wind and rain wrecked havoc with 
the camp. Most of the campers had to flee to neighboring farm- 
houses or to the city, because their tents were flooded or upended. 
The judges of the Scout Competition decided to include resistance 
of the national camps to the storm as a new item in the compe- 
tition. They visited all tents, counted the scouts who remained 
in their camp, and took notes on the condition of the camps. The 
British, American, and French camps, as well as many others, 
were weather-beaten, full of mud. 

The Hungarian camp stood undamaged. Well-cut ditches 
saved the tents from flooding. Tight pegging resisted the fury 



24 



of the storm.. Not one Hungarian boy left the camp. All of them 
were in their tents, sleeping, reading, chatting, astonished at the 
surprise and appreciation of the judges. 

The main judge lunched at the camp. After the meal, he so- 
lemnly declared: *I salute the Hungaian troop, which has the most 
beautiful camp/" 

Despite all the interest and excitement generated by the Jam- 
boree, the leaders of world scouting decided against any more 
world scouting championships. It was agreed that the various 
competitions and preparations deprived the scouts of the op- 
portunity to spend time with scouts of other countries and es- 
tablish ties of friendship. The event had turned into a sporting 
meet which had its own merits but was not to be central to inter- 
national scout gatherings. 



The First Hungarian National Jamboree 

The nation received the scouts returning from the World 
Jamboree with tremendous acclaim. They were invited to a special 
audience with the Regent. Their success encouraged the formation 
of new scout troops all over the country. 

By this time, not only scouts themselves but many others 
realized that scouting could play an important role in improving 
the image of Hungary in the eyes of other nations. Prompted by 
this realization, the leadership increased its efforts to send the 
best-prepared Scout contingents to travel outside Hungary. In 
turn, many foreign scout groups that had been their hosts now trav- 
eled to Hungary and were received with unfailing hospitality. The 
idea of a Jamboree-like assembly of all Hungarian scouts with 
the participation of guest scouts from other countries began 
to be considered seriously. 

The large-scale national camp of 1926 turned out to be one 
of the most important events of the twenties. The planning of 
this event was entrusted to a special committee headed by 
Sandor Sik, 

Originally, the campsite was to have been on Nepsziget Island 
in the Danube. Surveying, planning, and even the installation 
of the technical equipment needed to accommodate thousands 



25 




of campers had already been completed when the Danube 
flooded and submerged most of the site. Ten days before the 
camp was to open, the organizers had to decide whether there 
was going to be a National Jamboree. Pal TelekTs enthusiasm 
saved the situation. He convinced all doubters that the camp 
must be held at the appointed time. The government provided 
some funds to assist in the relocation of the camp to the hills 
of Megyer. Speedy preparation of the new site was undertaken and 
the camp opened on schedule. This feat raised the prestige of 
the movement in the eyes of the public. People were impressed 
by the scouts' ability to achieve remarkable feats in record time, 
against heavy odds. The scouting movement had demonstrated 
that it could be counted upon to serve society's needs as they arise. 




Entrance gate at the Megyer National Jamboree in 1926. 



27 



The Megyer campsite had the advantages of open areas and 
a nearby river. Its shortcomings included poor transportation 
and water supply. Camp headquarters were close to the central 
field where all large assemblies took place and where the flags 
of the participating nations were displayed. The campsite was 
flanked on the north by the camp restaurant, bazaar, and archery 
field and on the south by food supply services and fire-fighting 
equipment. Several first-aid areas were set up, together with 
a camp hospital. Facilities included an amphitheater that could 
accommodate ten thousand people. All camp services were 
manned by scouts, with the exception of the post office. Sub- 
camps were connected by a telephone system. Guests were driven 
to the campsite by cars on a regular schedule. Dropping greetings 
from various groups, small aircraft flew frequently over the camp. 

The chief scouts of Austria, Great Britain, Italy, and Bulgaria 
attended. Scout contingents came from Austria, Bulgaria, 
Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, Iceland, India, Italy, Latvia, 
Poland, and Switzerland. The official opening took place with 
pomp and circumstance on July 15. Guest speakers at the opening 
ceremony included Count Pal Teleki, Prince Albrecht, and 
Lord Hampton, Chief Scout of Great Britain. A campfire was 
held the same evening to express solidarity with scouts in the 
areas that had been detached from Hungary in 1920 by the 
Trianon Peace Treaty. Hungarian scout troops in Transylvania 
(Rumania), southern Czechoslovakia, and northern Yugoslavia 
also lighted campfires that evening. On July 17, Admiral Miklos 
Horthy, Regent of Hungary, was greeted by a march-past of 
the scouts. 

Camp activities were numerous. Many duties and services 
had to be performed. Competitions were held, including a two-day 
poetry recital contest. Displays were presented to visitors. Troops 
from rural regions excelled in the folksong competition. Thou- 
sands sat in the amphitheater and watched movies which often 
included films made by and of the scouts at the camp. The scout 
exhibit displayed crafts submitted by over sixty troops from 
all over the country. The items displayed included wood carvings, 
leatherwork, medals, trophies, troop insignia, and flags. 

Competitions were divided into compulsory and optional 
classes. The compulsory competitions demanded skills generally 



28 



practiced by all scouts, such as camp construction and campfires 
in the troop competition and obstacle courses in the patrol 
competition. In the individual competition, boys were required 
to demonstrate their skills in map reading, first aid, observation, 
tracking, water safety, and cooking. The optional competitions 
included advanced scoutcraft as well as athletic events such 



A tabor elejen 6s — vig&n. 




Caricatures from Tdbori Ujsdg, the daily newspaper of the Megyer 
National Jamboree. Top: "At the outset of the camp — and at its end. " 
Bottom: Mail delivery in the "Sahara" camp. 



29 



as archery, fencing, rowing, cycling, and horseback riding. Some 
of Hungary's Olympic athletes in later years had been participants 
of this national camp. 

The official newspaper of the camp, the Tdbori Ujsdg (Camp 
News), appeared six times during the week. Three thousand 
copies of each twelve-page issue, full of photographs and cartoons 
drawn by the scouts themselves, were distributed. A frequent 
object of humor was the sand of the campsite, blown by the 
winds into tents, food, and everywhere else, inspiring a whole 
series of 'Sahara" jokes. 



B. P.-S MESSAGE TO THE HUNGARIAN SCOUTS. 



6~ <3 1r~V **** 

. A^U^, . -O, V*" ***** *** 



3 H' 



t5 



IW lie J t *— - U *- £~*Jw^J * 4 [Uia*A 

j«6i 



1 



-t3 * 



«... 



tt 41-. J J fLOL w-^ a *™ ? l 

3 kJfr tut. <r *^*jt< k«j s+«j^ 



J G«Jh^ Ku- ■-,7. 

^ -^{, f ^ J uu. L, p| l^Lf, Gj^ 

*^ i-wJ« , B.J fr»<rw, k ^ u > w^. 



«^ J- ^--^ 



pi 

tr-- 



1 U*J 



^ M ^ , 



Facsimile of Lord Baden- Powell's letter of thanks to the Hungarian 
Scouts after his visit to Budapest in 1928. 



30 



Lord Baden- Powell was invited but he could not attend the 
camp because of illness. Instead, he visited Hungary with his wife 
in May, 1928, and was greeted in Budapest by a rally of 8,000 
scouts. Emphasizing his satisfaction and his appreciation of the 
Hungarian Scouting movement, he addressed one of his cheerful 
speeches to the assembled boys. These sentiments are reflected 
in this thank-you letter, written to Pal Teleki and reproduced 
here in facsimile, taken from a contemporary issue of Magyar 
Cserkesz. 



Scouting Institutions and Activities 

The unprecedented success of the National Jamboree led to 
continued lively expansion. A headquarters building, a training 
park, a scout store, and a central sea scout base were acquired 
in 1927. 

Headquarters resided in a three-story building in downtown 
Budapest which was to remain the nerve center of the movement 
until its disbanding in 1948. It housed offices, a large meeting hall, 
guest rooms, the Scout Shop, and editorial offices. The 20-acre 
training park, located on the outskirts of Budapest, was used 
for troop outings and leadership training courses. The success 
of the leader training seminars can be attributed largely to the 
efforts of the Hdzi Orsvezetok Kore (HOK, Headquarters Patrol 
Leader Circle), whose members were always on call as a training 
team. This group, founded in 1928 by Pal Sztrilich, invented 
the so-called forgoszinpad (revolving stage) method of training, 
an effective way of instructing small groups in several different 
subjects in a short time. It is used by many scout groups to this 
day. The park became a favorite campground of scouts from all 
parts of the country. Its equipment and facilities were constantly 
upgraded. Eventually it accommodated 1,200 leadership candi- 
dates a year in tents that could even be heated in cold weather 
for training courses held on snowy March days. The name of 
the training park, Hdrshegy (Linden Tree Hill) inspired the 
emblem of Hungarian Scout leadership training ever since, 
a badge showing a linden leaf. 

The scout store was established to supply scouts with uniforms 
and equipment, to interest scouts in marketing and commerce, 



31 



The Hungarian Seoul House in Budapest, location of National Hed- 
quarters and of the Scout Shop. 

and above all, to support the movement financially. The by- 
laws required that 60 percent of the profits be used for scout- 
oriented projects. The directors performed their tasks on a vol- 
unteer basis. The store, which later grew to 62 employees, became 
a considerable asset to the Association. Dezso Major was a major 
Figure in its establishment and management. 

At the time of the National Jamboree, Scoutmaster Gyula 
Zsembery discovered an abandoned shipyard on the Nepsziget 
Island. This became the Headquarters of Hungarian sea scouts. 

The Vezetotiszti Testukt (Council of Commissioners), a top- 
level group of leaders, was established to raise the standard of 
scout training even higher. It dealt directly with scouts and troops, 
providing practical advice and counsel. 



32 




THE BOY SCOUTS ASSOCIATION, 

i5 BUCKINGHAM PALACE ROAD. 

LONDON. S W. 1. 



<u~£t£ a^ulo **f<f ' ^^«* 

0&** 0-~y ^WWfc^ sttJ^^C ****** J^^^^^Z^H^ 



Facsimile of letter of thanks by Lord Hampton, Chief Scout of Great 
Britain, to Lajos Mdrton, the renowned illustrator of Hungarian 
Scouting publications. 

33 





A hdrshegyi Gaerkesz 
park v&zrajza. 

Map of the Hdrshegy training camp near Budapest, 

A yearly Scout Day became a traditional event. On this day, 
all scouts and leaders wore their uniforms to school or work. 
In 1927, Hungarian scouts sent representatives to the Inter- 
national Sea Scout competition in Helsingor, Denmark, and 
to the Swedish national camp near Stockholm. The Hungarian 
team won several first places in the 1928 and 1929 International 
Scout Skiing competitions in Kandersteg, Switzerland. 

In 1929, the Scout Association published a collection of folk- 
songs entitled 101 Magyar Nepdal (\0\ Hungarian Folksongs), 
with a foreword by the composer Zokan Kodaly. With the pub- 
lication of this volume, Scouting became the first institution to 
popularize folk music in Hungary. Lajos Bardos, a leader of 
Troop 7 at the Werboczy High School in Budapest, had been 
a student of Kodaly at the Academy of Music from 1920 to 1925 
and initiated the singing of folksongs among scouts. The folk 
music of Hungary, painstakingly documented, preserved, and 
held in esteem today, was not appreciated at the turn of the century. 
It was a truly hidden national treasure, as the folk music research 
of Zoltan Kodaly and Bela Bartok was not well known. The 
eventual wide acceptance of folk music was, in large measure, 
due to its promotion by scouting. ^ 



III. 

THE HUNGARIAN GIRL SCOUTS 



Inspired by boy scouting, the first girl scout troops in Hun- 
gary were formed in 1919. Soon the movement became indepen- 
dent. The first Girl Scout Council was organized by 1921, headed 
by Jolan Gerely. An organizational booklet, Lednycserkesz Ut- 
mutato (Girl Scout Handbook), was published the same year. 
In 1924, Antonia Lindenmeyer was elected president of the 
Hungarian Girl Scout Association. She remained head of the 
organization until 1945. Endeavoring to secure the support of Hun- 
garian society at large, in 1924 the Association organized the Advi- 
sory Council, which was made up of thirty distinguished ladies. 
Archduchess Anna of Hapsburg assumed the title of Patroness of 
the Association in 1925. 

For many years, the Girl Scout movement was much less 
popular than Boy Scouting. Its development was made difficult 
by prejudice on the part of parents and of society at large, as 
a result of prevailing views about the educational needs of girls. 
Many of the successful principles and practices of scouting were 
considered "unladylike". Outdoor life, camping, the wearing 
of a uniform, and scoutcraft were thought improper for girls. 
Nevertheless, the Association had 5,000 members in 1927, in 
about 100 troops organized into 1 1 districts. Numbers increased 
steadily, reaching 12,700 girls scouts in nearly 300 troops by the 
end of World War II. 

The troops had to be sponsored by educational institutions in 
order to become members of the Association. Therefore, most 
girl scout troops functioned in the framework of elementary and 
secondary schools. Troops were divided into at least four "fam- 
ilies'* of 8-10 girl scouts each. There were separate troops of 
brownies (for girls aged 6 to 12), girl scouts (from 12 to 18), and 
rangers (if the troop was made up of girls above 18). Troop 
activities centered on four areas: character building, practical 
skills, physical fitness, and development of social responsibility. 
The objective was to prepare the girl scouts for women's three 
tasks in life: to be mothers, homemakers, and breadwinners. 
For girl scouts over 14, great emphasis was placed on merit badges. 



36 



International contacts started in 1922, when the Council of 
the Hungarian Girl Scout Association became a member of 
the Girl Scout World Conference. In 1928, Hungary was host 
to the fifth World Conference of Girl Guides, held in Parad and 
attended by delegates from 26 countries, representing 33 girl 
guide organizations. The World Association of Girl Guides and 
Girl Scouts was founded at this conference. It had 9,000 members 
at the beginning but grew to seven and a half million by 1978. 
The Conference assumed the work of the earlier International 
Council as coordinator of the activities of girl guides in various 
countries. The conference at Parad was opened by Lord Baden- 
Powell himself, accompanied by his wife, Olave. It elected a 
president and an executive committee. A central office was estab- 
lished in London, led by Katherine Furse from England. The 
guides' international magazine. The Council Fire, reprinted the 
original 1928 report of the conference in 1978, on the occasion 
of the 50th anniversary: 

'The first meeting on Hungarian territory took place in the 
Collegium Hungaricum, at Vienna, where the delegates and guests 
met on May 2nd, and where we made the acquaintance of many 
Hungarian Girl Scouts, who had come from various places for 
this purpose. After a beautiful boating trip we arrived the following 
evening at Budapest, and were welcomed and addressed on the 
part of the Government and the Minister of the Board of Edu- 
cation. That Scouting is looked upon in Hungary as an important 
factor of education is proved by the fact the President, Miss 
Antonia Lindenmeyer, who is a high-school teacher, was allowed 
three months' holiday to prepare this congress. In the old Uni- 
versity town, Debrecen, there are university lectures in Scouting, 
where leaders are formed and where there is even a hall for Girl 
Scout students only. That Scouting is made much of, was proved 
by the numerous receptions to which the delegates were invited. .. 
Then a very official reception in the large reception hall of the 
"Hofburg"by the Governor of Hungary, Admiral Miklos Horthy, 
by the Minister-President, Count Bethlen; by the Parliament; 
and the Lord Mayor and town Councillors. 

A very pleasing performance in the theatre, where we saw 
various presentations of Hungarian history, first from the heathen 
and then from the Christian period. After that, a presentation of 
family feasts and customs of Hungarian peasants, as are often 
seen by Girl Scouts when camping out which showed us many 



37 



peculiar customs. There were also some beautiful Hungarian 
dances. 

We also had the pleasure of seeing several interesting parts 
of the country." 

Miss Lindenmeyer was elected to the nine-member World Com- 
mittee as a recognition to the growing movement in Hungary. 

Leader training camps were held at regular intervals, starting 
in 1923. They ensured the unification of instruction programs 
of the different troops and fostered personal contact among the 
leaders. Unity of the movement was served foremost by the 
launching, in 1931, of the journal of the Association, Cserkesz- 
idnyok Lapja (Girl Scout Magazine), which was to appear monthly 
without interruption, until November, 1944. Other publications 
included the Tunderke (Fairy) magazine for Brownies, the Ledny- 
cserkesz Otmutato (Girl Scout Handbook), and the Csaldd- 
vezetok Kortyve (Family Leaders' Handbook). 



/. (X) BYFOM'AU, ft. S/.AM. 



torn avgusztus no. 




CSERKBSZLANYOK lapja 

FeteUS* uakeaiA es kiadd: UKDENMEYKH ANT ON t A ant. ttnBk. 



Page heading in the August 1939 issue of the Girl Scout magazine 
CserkeszMnyok Lapja. 

The year 1932 represents a new milestone of the Hungarian 
Girl Scout movement: the first national camp was held at Tahi, 
with the participation of 485 girl scouts from all over the country. 
Next, the Association actively helped the Boy Scout Association 
in the preparations for the Fourth World Jamboree in Godollo. 
Although girl scouts did not camp at the Jamboree, they acted 
as hostesses to visiting girl scouts and organized excursions for 



38 




PAX-TINC-HUNGARY 
I^AGVARORSZ/to 

-1 939 



CZsatkas^dtiifok 

JL 



l. (X.) £VF„ 6, Kt — 19J9 AUGUSZTUS 



apfa 



Title page of the August, 1938, issue of Cserkiszldnyok Lapja, issued 
before the opening of the Pax-Ting. 

39 



them throughout Hungary. They also prepared a large exhibition 
of folk art and scoutcraft in Budapest. 

This same year, 1933, saw the acquisition — through gifts — 
of new Headquarters, as well as a five-acre camping ground in 
Kacstapolca. Later, a larger property of 12 acres was acquired 
in Balatonszarszo, 

The consolidation of the Girl Scout movement in Hungary, 
coupled with the overwhelming success of the Fourth Scout 
Jamboree at Godollo inspired the Girl Scout Association to 
organize a world gathering for girl scouts. Pax Ting, the first 
and so far only World Jamboree for girl scouts alone was also 
held in Godollo, in 1939. The name of the gathering was coined 
from Latin for "peace" and Old German for "assembly." About 
3,000 girl scouts and many leaders from 24 countries participated 
in the week-long event. It was a last symbolic show of unity and 
understanding on the eve of World War II. An exhibition was 
organized from materials submitted by girl guide troops. Its bulk 
consisted of folk art and decoration, besides scoutcraft from 
Hungary and abroad. The program of the main campfire was 
broadcast throughout the country by radio. After the camp, for- 
eign girl guides led by Hungarian girls guides were taken on sight- 
seeing tours of Budapest. 

The only other world camp of girl scouts was held in 1957 
at Windsor, Great Britain. It paralleled the Boy Scout Jubilee 
Jamboree which was celebrating the centenary of Baden Powell's 
brith and the 50th anniversary of world scouting. The Hungarian 
delegation received a warm welcome from all British girl scout 
leaders remembering the Pax Ting. 

Social work had always been an integral part of girl scout 
education. From the 1930's, all girl scout troops had participated 
in the Vdndorkosdr (gift basket) action at Christmas, which 
provided layettes for babies of poor families. In the early forties, 
the girl scouts initiated many more projects of social help. Troops 
sent packages of food, clothing, blankets, books, and toys to the 
families of soldiers, to Hungarians living in neighboring countries, 
and to needy peasant families. Girl scouts worked for the Red 
Cross, substituted at schools, directed playgroups, and helped in 
hospitals. They participated in civil defense practices, fire brigades, 
and first aid courses. In short, they did their best to help during 
those difficult years. 



40 



IV. 

GROWTH AND EXPANSION 



The Third World Jamboree 

The scouts of Great Britain had requested the privilege of 
organizing the Third World Jamboree, since it would mark the 
coming of age of scouting, to be celebrated at the birthplace of 
the movement. Arrowe Park, near Liverpool- Birkenhead, was 
chosen as the site of the Jamboree. The 2 1st anniversary of Scout- 
ing actually fell in 1928, but the Jamboree was postponed until 
1929 so that it would not coincide with the Olympic Games. 

The Jamboree differed from the previous ones. Its new goal 
was the strengthening of ties between scouts of various nations. 
Competitions were replaced by heartfelt togetherness. The ideals 
of scouting were central to the program of the camp. For this 
reason, outside visitors were allowed only in the afternoons. 

The Hungarian contingent of 852 scouts arrived in Birkenhead 
after many months of thorough preparation. This show of force 
was a tremendous accomplishment at the time; it was the largest 
group of Hungarian scouts ever to have participated in a foreign 
camp. The boys and leaders were anxious to enhance the favorable 
image of Hungarian youth. Many hoped secretly that the honor 
of organizing the next world jamboree would be granted to the 
Hungarians. The contingent included a brass band, a string 
orchestra, a choir, and a folk dance and games group. It carried 
a large collection of artifacts for the exhibition. There were sepa- 
rate groups composed of troop leaders, patrol leaders, and sea 
scouts, A special press troop of scouts was on hand to write about 
the daily events to readers back home. The leader of the Hun- 
garian delegation was Gyozo Temesy, under whose supervision 
not one of the scouts was injured or taken ill during the long 
journey and in the camp. 

The Hungarian scouts became famous for their hats with 
drvaldnyhaj (feather grass) and for their brass band. They were 
also noted for their freshly washed and ironed uniforms, in de- 
fiance of frequent downpours and mud. Aware of the weather 
conditions in England, they had purposely brought three uniforms 



41 




a 

I 

s 

.■3 

I 

.3 



Visit by the Chief Scout. 



Lord Baden-Powell inspects the camp. 




I 

Hungarian Scouts in London, marching to the War Memorial. 




Laying of a wreath at the War Memorial. 



45 




ArrownTork J* 
BirkonWd 
ILr\.glo.r\cl 

o 'MufvgdnarvScou^. . . It we§ flxarx 
dccidad tkel Ike next Janvaorce... 
La kcld in. Hungary Ike park o ' 
Godollo, /war Budapest waj 5c" ' 
a^dcjor'liuj p\irpoja,tegd]wrwilk 
{keR^zrclj cajttfc wkcrc ifw j&imr 
kingj jpanJr ikcir jumjucijilkcrc arc 
CAonwuj prap&raWj under w^,„ 

THE OVERSEAS EDVCATION LEMjV/6- T»rWo-Wwap«g 



Canadian Scout Newsletter, announcing the Fourth World 
46 



for each participant — one to wear, one as a spare, the third at 
the cleaners. Among the many groups the Hungarian Scouts 
befriended were the Scottish Scouts, who taught some of them 
to play the bagpipe. After a few days, the Hungarian scouts 
serenaded Lord Baden-Powell with bagpipes on the occasion of 
his birthday. The audience thought that the musicians were Scots, 
and no one discovered their real identity. 

The Hungarian contingent was invited by the city of Oldham 
to a festive Hungarian Day. All work was suspended for that day; 
everyone was in the streets to greet the visitors. The town had 
a special coin minted to commemorate the event, and each of 
the Hungarian scouts was presented with one. After the formal 
ceremonies, the townspeople offered the guests their friendship 
and hospitality, food, drink, and flowers. When the eight-day 
camp ended, the Hungarian scouts went on to enjoy London 
through the generosity of Lord Rothermere, their English host, 
who provided accommodations and meals for the 852 scouts for 
an additional nine days. Each day, 32 buses took them sight- 
seeing in London and in the countryside. In Parliament, 50 mem- 
bers of the House of Commons provided personal tours, detailing 
the many stages of the law-making process. On the last night 
of their stay, Lord Rothermere presented each of the Hungarian 
scouts with a silver watch engraved with the words Nehogy 
Londont elfeledd ("Never forget London"). The young men who 
received them never forgot. 

The Jamboree in England was a tremendous success for the 
Hungarians, who won the respect, admiration, and friendship 
of the British public and of scouts worldwide. One of the tangible 
results of the Jamboree was the election of Pal Teleki to the nine- 
member executive body of the world scouting movement, the 
World Committee. 

The Young Adult Program 

By this time, Hungarian scouting was commemorating its 20th 
anniversary, and a generation of young men had passed through 
the scouting program. Many of them were exploring seriously 
the possibilities of further involvement in scouting. Sandor Sik, 
one of Hungary's greatest scout educators, became increasingly 



47 



absorbed with the problems of these young adults, the scout 
alumni. He gathered observations, ideas, and potential answers 
to the question: how does the scout grown to adulthood become 
an active member of society at large and deal with the social 
problems he encounters? 

The Hungarian scouts of the territories severed from the 
country, in Transylvania (Rumania) and in former Northern 
Hungary (Czechoslovakia), were also concerned with these issues. 
They were led by established writers and thinkers such as Zsolt 
Aradi (Northern Hungary) and Dezso Albrecht (Transylvania). 
At the time, a relatively free political climate existed in both 
countries; even crossing the borders into Hungary could be ac- 
complished easily. Thus, exchange of ideas was possible. 

As a result of innumerable serious discussions, a booklet was 
published with the title, Fiatal Magyarsdg (Young Hungarians), 
containing a collection of essays. They addressed current ethical, 
social, and national problems, and sought to provide moral 
guidance on many questions confronting youth. It amounted to 
a "creed of young Hungarian adults." Its co-authors included 
the most outstanding scout leaders: Pal Teleki, Sandor Sik, 
Kalman Vidovszky, Zsolt Aradi, Dezso Major, and others. It 
went through several editions and reached a total printing of 
150,000 copies. Its success inspired the start of a monthly publi- 
cation, Fiatal Magyarsdg, geared to the needs and concerns of 
young adults who wanted to maintain ties to scouting. The edi- 
torial staff consisted of first-rate writers led by Sandor Sik and 
Pal Teleki. Folk culture and its preservation played a large role 
in the general direction of the publication; this aspect was of 
particular importance to Teleki, who envisioned an active organi- 
zation of former scouts as a training ground for the future leaders 
of Hungary. 

The Fourth World Jamboree in Hungary 

The World Scout Conference in 1931 was to determine the host 
nation for the Fourth World Jamboree. Hungary submitted 
a proposal to organize the event, along with the United States, 
Czechoslovakia, the Netherlands, and other countries. Most 
Hungarian scout leaders favored the idea of a Jamboree in Hun- 



4K 



gary. Others, such as Pal Teleki, were concerned; they were pain- 
fully aware that such events tended to become shows for visitors 
and rarely, if ever, contributed any spiritual depth and educa- 
tional benefit. 

The conference in Baden, Austria, awarded the privilege of 
organizing the Fourth World Jamboree to Hungary. The Hun- 
garian scouts were pleased and proud to have been chosen. Hurdles 
were overcome despite the world economic depression because 
of the expertise of Antal Papp, the new president of the Associa- 
tion and former Secretary of Financial Affairs of Hungary, who 
directed fiscal planning and management. Pal Teleki agreed to 
be the camp chief. Ferenc Farkas became Teleki's deputy. He 
had distinguished himself already through his work with apprentice 
scouts and was a national co-chairman of the Scout Association. 

The preparatory work spanned two years and involved many 
of the most experienced leaders of the Association. In order to 
prevent the planning committee from getting bogged down in 
bureaucratic difficulties, Pal Teleki was named a special govern- 
ment commissioner for the Jamboree (Jamboree kormdnybiz- 
tos). This move resolved many jurisdictional misunderstandings 
and reconfirmed the idea that the Jamboree belonged to the whole 
nation. The initial tasks included choosing and surveying the 
campsite and working out technical aspects and means of supply. 
All basic requisites for a good site existed near Godollo, 20 miles 
from the capital, where the park and gardens of the government- 
owned castle were made available to the scouts. Facilities consisted 
of a large, shaded, level area that could accommodate 30,000 
campers, with provisions for drinking water, transportation, 
and nearby food supplies. All of these features made the site 
a first-rate location for the Jamboree. Building and construction 
work at the site included the drilling of wells, the building of 
roads, and the training of the service troop that would be re- 
sponsible for camp security and fire and water safety. Information 
of potential foreign visitors began early, in order to assure the 
representation of as many nations as possible. Public relations 
activities in Hungary made people aware of the extent and im- 
portance of the camp. Each foreign scout delegation would be 
invited to visit a Hungarian scout troop of its choice in its home 
environment, in order to provide further opportunities for mak- 
ing friends. Thus, visitors could meet the "average" Hungarian 



49 



scouts and see that the scouts at Godollo were not showpiece 
participants. 

As the Jamboree was about to start, Scout delegations from 
abroad were met at the border and escorted by scouts to the camp. 
Twenty-six thousand scouts from 54 nations assembled at the 
opening pageant of the Jamboree on August 3, 1933. 

Theceremony is described by two leaders of the U.S. contingent, 
Chief Scout Executive James E. West and the famous training 
leader William Hillcourt ("Greenbar Bill") in 77k? 1933 Scout 
Jamboree Book: 

Four o'clock! 

A bugle sounded over the field and at the same moment a band struck 
up the majestic tune of the Hungarian National Anthem. 

We looked around and saw a group of horsemen approaching. 

Jn front, on a pure white horse, rode a stately man, in the uniform 
of an admiral. Right behind him, on a brown steed, followed another, 
an older man, clad in the familiar khaki of the Scout Uniform. A score 
of brightly dressed horsemen on beautiful prancing mounts brought 
up the rear. 

The Regent of Hungary, Admiral Horthy, and "B. P.,** Lord Baden 
Powell the Chief Scout of the world, were passing before us, and as 
they rode down the line, the flags of the world were dipped in salute. 
Only our own was kept flowing in the breeze, according to our code, 
while our Troop flags were dipped to the ground in greeting. 

To most of the boys, this was the first glimpse we had ever had of the 
founder of our great movement and we looked amazed as he passed by, 
at the man who at the age of seventy-six was still as a boy among us, 
youthful and spirited. 

Slowly the cavalcade rode before the long line of the Scouts of the 
world, until every one had been viewed. Then, suddenly, from the 
extreme left end of the field, the white horse galloped across the arena, 
closely followed by the brown and the guard of horsemen, and stopped 
short at the reviewing platform in front of the grandstands. 

The Regent and the Chief Scout dismounted. A moment later they 
stood on the platform and were greeted by a wild outburst of enthusiasm 
from the many onlookers. 

As the last note of the hymnlike national anthem died away, the 
Regent spoke. Every word was carried by loud-speakers into the far- 
thest ends of the field, as he talked, first in English, to the thousands of 
Scouts gathered before him. 

"Scouts!" he said, "you have come to Hungary from all parts of the 
world to testify to the magnificent and uplifting powers of brotherhood 
represented by Scouting. 

50 




51 



"The noble ties of friendship will, I believe, become even stronger 
among you through this Fourth World Jamboree. 

"I am convinced that the Jamboree will do much toward the pro- 
motion of good-will and peaceful cooperation, for the general good 
of humanity." 

And with a sweep of the arm, which took in the arena and the park 
around it, he continued: 

"The Hungarian nation offers you with love these wood-girt fields 
for your camping. The Hungarian nation welcomes you and your leader, 
the founder of the World Scout Movement, Lord Baden-Powell. 

"Welcome to you all! I hope you will feel at homer 

As he finished his greeting to the boys of the world, the Regent lifted 
his hand in salute. Then, as he let it fall, he changed into Hungarian 
and spoke to his own Scouts, as their ruler and friendly adviser... 

"To you, my sons, 1 shall speak separately. 1 am sure that you all feel 
the importance of this great event. From the four corners of the globe 
Scouts have assembled here. When they return home, they will spread 
at home the impressions they have gained. 

"It is up to you, individually, to make these impressions favorable. 

"Be all of you worthy of your reputation: modest, but possessed of 
proper pride-courteous and sympathetic. 

"Much fun and good work, my boys!" 

A great cheer rolled over the field. Then the Chief Scout of the world 
stepped up to the microphone. 

All weather prophets shivered. They knew that according to the 
tradition of all previous Jamborees, the skies should open for a cloud- 
burst at the first sound of B.P.'s voice. The heavens looked dark enough, 
but to the great relief of all, not a single drop fell as Baden Powell started: 

"Welcome to you all-my brother Scouts from all the world! 

"It is a real joy to me to see you all again, assembled here on the hospi- 
table soil of Hungary. 

"His Highness, the Regent, has done us a very high honor and through 
us, to our whole movement, by coming here in person to greet us. Further 
than this, he has also granted us the use of this beautiful park for our 
camping ground. 

"You would naturally want to show your gratitude to him by cheer- 
ing him and by waving your banners, but there is something he would 
value more highly than this. It is up to all of us-every Scout and Scouter- 
to show him, by our conduct here, that we do fully appreciate the honor 
he has done us and the belief he has shown in us. 

"He will, I feel sure, like to see that you are not merely camping here 
for your health and amusement, as you could do anywhere but that you 
have come together here to make personal friendships with your brother 
Scouts of other nations, as peace-makers in the world." 



52 



B. P. stopped for a moment, Then he continued and his voice was 
stronger and his appeal more direct. 

"Let me remind you that the days flit quickly by. There is no time 
to waste! Make the most of the few hours you are here in getting in 
touch with the other fellows. 

"I do hope that each of you has a notebook in which to enter the 
names and addresses of the new friends you make each day, so that 
when you are back home again, you can continue to keep up the friend- 
ships by letters and if possible, by exchanging visits. 

"I want to see men of all countries at peace with each other. You are 
the future men of your countries, so be friends! 

"You have a wonderful opportunity here to start such friendships. 
Make the most of it! Don't let a day pass without making new friends. 

"Many of you have come very long distances to be here. I thank you 
for it. It shows your keenness as Scouts. And I thank you, Scouters, 
for bringing your lads, especially at such a difficult time. I hope you 
will all have a most enjoyable time! 

"See all you can of this wonderful country while you are here, But 
above all: MAKE FRIENDS!" 

So ended the welcome of the Chief Scout of the World. A miracle 
happened as he finished, for the sun broke through the dark clouds 
for a fleeting second and beamed on the thousands of Scouts, as they 
yelled their tumultuous applause. 

Now, somewhere far up to our right, something started to move. 
The parade of the nations was on its way past the reviewing stand, 
where Admiral Horthy and B. P. stood at attention, and past the grand- 
stand with its thousand of applauding visitors. 

To the tune of Hungarian bands, the Scouts of the world marched by . . . 

The success of the Jamboree, praised widely in the press abroad, 
attested to the thoroughness of preparation by Hungarian leaders 
and scouts and to the support of the Hungarian public. Favorable 
weather also helped. 

The Jamboree newspaper called the chief of staff, Ferenc 
Farkas, the invisible power plant of the camp. He indeed played 
this role. He was responsible for food, lodging, entertainment, 
and generally the well-being of 30,000 people. The service troop 
under his supervision consisted of 485 scoutmasters, 499 rover 
scouts, and 1,265 scouts. Special dietary needs of various foreign 
groups, such as the Muslims and Hindus, were considered. The 
Jamboree was subdivided into 10 subcamps, in addition to several 
special subcamps accommodating visiting scouts, cub scouts, air 



53 



scouts, foreign scout leader delegations, and sea and river scouts. 
There was even a subcamp for deaf-mute scouts. 

A committee, composed of 38 Budapest girl guides who spoke 
altogether 17 languages, was of assistance, visiting participants 
who fell ill during the Jamboree and had to be taken to clinics in 
Budapest; fortunately, only 14 scouts needed such services. 

The Hungarian postal services issued a series of special stamps 
in honor of the Jamboree, among them the first air-mail scout 
stamps ever issued. The Jamboree mail service handled almost 
half a million letters. Hungarian radio broadcast 80 programs 
related to the Jamboree and forwarded thousands of personal 
radio messages. Railway transportation was efficient. During 
the 10 days of the Jamboree, 844 special trains passed through the 
station at Godbllo. 

The press service published 20,000 daily copies of the 24-page 
Magyar Cserkesz (Hungarian Scout). Every page carried articles 
and captions in English, French, German, Polish, and Hun- 
garian. The paper contained, in addition to the articles published 
simultaneously in several languages, a "national corner" in which 
each national delegation, regardless of its size, could communicate 
in its own language. Some of these articles had to be prepared as 
plates because the printer was not equipped with Arabic or Sanscrit 
type. The goal of the paper was to appeal to everybody. It was 
a success, albeit costly in terms of man-hours of the editorial 
staff. The editor wrote: 

"The Jamboree is a hardfisted slave-driver that squeezes every- 
thing out of you. To be sure, it gives, in return, a great deal of pure 
happiness." 

The shopping district of the camp (scout exhibitions, theater, 
bank) was designed to serve 30,000 inhabitants and 40 to 50,000 
daily visitors. To ensure that it would be esthetically pleasing 
and harmonious with the master plan of the camp, the architect 
and scout leader, Alfred Bardon, was chosen as its designer. The 
exhibition was housed in three sizable halls. The displays were 
handled by a special section of the service troop, who spent five 
days setting up the exhibition. Two of the halls were filled with 
Hungarian materials, while the third contained exhibits from 
about 20 foreign countries. 

In accordance with the scout laws, religious observances 
constituted an important part of the camp. Christian church 



54 



services were led by bishops and senior ministers of the various 
denominations were represented. Jewish services were held. The 
Muslim rites were led by their high priest. The Muslim participants 
initially wanted to hold their services in a secluded clearing in 
the woods. They objected to photography; two films had to be 
destroyed to comply with their request. 

Glimpses of life in the camp can be savored in a description 
from William Hillcourf s book: 

We slipped into the Australian camp to get a good look at the many 
boomerangs they had brought along to the delight of all the boys of 
other countries and found that we had arrived at the psychological 
moment. The cooks were yelling, "Come and get it" and we were invited 
to join them, an invitation we greatly appreciated. This sight-seeing 
sure does things to your appetite! 

We were seated and the pots were brought around. 

One of the fellows, with knitted brow, yelled in a stentorian voice: 

"What!!!! No paprikaTTT 

Whereupon the rest of them broke into a loud chorus to a not entirely 
unfamiliar tune: 

"Yes, we have no paprika 
We have no paprika today! 
We 've goulash and onions 
And veal stew and bunions 
And ten tons of bread and say — 
We have Admiral Horthy tomatoes, 
Baden Powell potatoes! 
But, yes, we have no paprika, 
We have no paprika today!" 

That was a jolly meal, in real Boy Scout spirit, and we enjoyed our- 
selves immensely. We soon discovered that we were not the only strang- 
ers present. A Swede, an Austrian, a black boy from Jamaica, a brown 
from nearby Cairo and a New Zealander were in the party too. 

During the meal, paprika had been on the tongue of every one, yet 
not literally, so it was no wonder that when the party was over, a few 
of us set out to hunt for the famous paprika bird, which we knew was 
supposed to be in hiding some place in the vicinity. 

We stalked through half of England, where, everywhere, everything 
ended in shire — Hampshire* Wiltshire, Berkshire, Lancashire, Devon- 
shire, until we finally located our bird. 

It was sitting there, perched in its cage, the only specimen in captivity. 
A mighty sign under it announced "DANGER! Don't feed the birdie." 
It didn't look very dangerous, though, but rather sad, with its green 



55 



head, red body and a drooping, bushy tail. But then it was only man- 
made, of a green and a red paprika, put together by wires and provided 
with a tuft of Arvalanyhaj ... 

A short stop-over in Jugoslavia — just step-in and say hello — and 
we arrived in Finland. 

Three mighty white stags, executed with imagination and lots of skill, 
of rough birch logs in various thicknesses, formed an attractive center 
display in the camp. Small shields with inscriptions were fastened onto 
them. One said Suomi for Finland, another Eesti for Estonia. The third 
wore the name of the host country, Magyarorszdg, the Hungarian name 
for Hungary. 

We found out that two of the Finnish Scouts had arrived at the 
Jamboree in canoes. 

The trip took them two months. They started in June from their home 
town up in the lake district and stopped in Helsingfors for a short while 
before they attempted the most dangerous part of the trip, the crossing 
of the Baltic from Finland to Estonia. From here they continued along 
the Baltic shores to Danzig, shot up the Weizel River into Poland, then 
along the Vag into the Danube which finally brought them to Budapest. 

They made the trip as real Scouts, camping on the way in a small 
tent, and making their own food. 

The canoes they had presented to the Hungarian Sea Scouts since 
they themselves were returning to their contingent. 

That wasn't the only display of pluck shown among the Scouts going 
to the Jamboree. We later heard of two French Scouts who also took 
an inland voyage by canoe, of three Norwegian Scouts bicycling from 
their home land, and even of one of our own American Scouts who 
had undertaken a pre-Jamboree bicycle journey through Northern 
Europe. 

But undoubtedly the Finnish adventure was the most difficult of 
them all. 

Bulgaria was our next port of call Just for a moment, though, be- 
cause the big wind mill of the Hungarian Troop from Szentes had to be 
photographed before the last rays of day had disappeared. 

Walking over to it we found ourselves stopping time and time again 
to admire the handiwork of the Hungarian Scouts and the patience 
with which they had spent all their spare time for months before the 
Jamboree in making it truly the show place of the world. 

Here was the peasant hut of Szeged with its boy-made furnishings 
in old Magyar style, here was the elaborate woodwork of the boys of 
Mako and the painted castle wall representing the town of Gyula. 

And then suddenly we remembered many more of the gorgeous gate- 
ways and camp decorations of our hospitable Hungarian friends, which 



56 



Envelope sold at the Jamboree, designed by Lajos Marlon. 





Entrance gate of the U.S. A, contingent. 




Scouts of Egypt and Iraq. 



60 



Budapest, 1523 augirirtui A 



Az idojarai 



Preeni'iiis. Au*nK7tu&. 3. 12 Gra: 
VuJIotd 1ril,,.irl, Iflbb brlyen mt-fi *4 
ptirok. A hi'ini. rulLlel lanu emelLedifie. 



L'un des Chefs d* la Police 

du cimp nous dit . . . 

' -ui utu Ecus. K i'i ris-L, que k\- Edfli- 
ritir* iinngroit qui po>r*enI itn hntttfd 

*r«(iKf »m unt kiln vtrte <Jt" J*ot char- 

S'f* de U pnljLt du cilnp. 

1J y *n a tiii grind tifiiftbre t«i leut art 
l'tct ni : ■. n»id(r»] i- n iit duiveni *ri)ln 
en perittanetice tur VimcneimiF ville de loiJe 
wcup£e pne lei srouls des divert pn>f. 

J* sun altr que iimninT l'un rti- leurs 
ctwl* el i»« rank d'Ua inri rjirHt lifi.ivtilc 
nous (■'■mrai arrival a eduoger noire ton- 
ttraaliou : 

— ■ l-l. -i tool c-n<ilm1i d* )• fa^tm dunl 

exarch* le ten'ret de paiioeT 



Das hciligc Kreuz 
im Lager Ostcrrcichs 

Wer dci L»|tr dct Biicrivleblirhen Pled' 
finder briuchl der wird li cites tin B < n all igri 
Krrui mil dmn (strrunti™ Heitiod Dad der 
DotneciTsne auf dero Hanpl* fcciui L ee, dai 
*n JUumcn brftktift U U'lldrude Meni 
[Ijw h(-iij bat ehw «is™»rli(tT Gnchlch'le. 
V or ii!-: bunderl JuJiirii, wAhrmd dei Iir*- 
lei niiUniplen »-urdt dbeiea Irnii mo 

den Burfcrr del Sledl Hull in Tirol all F«ld- 
r«khn votiH felrafcn- ISarlirver i:ind Pi hi 
der ■lieu Kirehe de< kUiwo B*i j»tidl Hall 
i [■'' rnl ia: ml Jatiren •rurdt « anllwlich 
drr tanirndjiiliripMi Sanfc'l 1. 'ran ei . — 1 ■ -F'cr ; 
ur deo iui Tlinl Woman i>n den ILiihallken 
mnb Rudopcil (nllfeDommeii. Hier blieb « 
in Beihm nm Eacelkm Hiwidf, dtr ei drtn 
Jstnboticlnipp der ailrrreknitf hen PJidJtn- 

4izi ttir VerrCfunfi ■ Itllle. Unci ma tGrpHit et, 

iljjt hrnie die n'aclUoinmeii Jm-i TiruVr. 
4k flml d*m Rrnui In din blulive Erbiirht 
TiiJin.-.hnnu, aaf den lrlrdl>e)i«i WrHirtiie* 
dn Jveend *lkr L&adet \t,rt Ai^darht vdr 



■J -cicb tar 



SraadfB teirkhltn. 



Godollo hit ii't day 

Godoilo, you lie cPftuin!- 
yOtS day — for ■ fortaicbl \ 

■<ria{ eietropolia, Id(j"d Iroup 

■■..■,!■■; — frora Don on your i 
ring down I h rough the page: 

tt>ry. 

t do we thmt iboul 
niilorj from afar, u«d to tl 
ring hubbub of might? dtiet. 

Witt, ft grand gesture you I 
voiirwrlf in rainient bright an 
you have painlrd yourself he 
bed and polished Budapest fa a 
quota to help you bear the 
our »laj\ 

We iiai.tr. perharis, it Mine 

fixi.ti; we smile, perllflpE, 

tju j i ni cosluiut'i, your trains, 

bo. 

I But belicvt m[, v* are grt 
I j-fMir ho&pitaliiy, your welci 



A multilingual page from the daily newspaper. 
Jamboree Magyar Cserkesz, 




Austrian Scout ban J. 




we had hardly stopped to look at on our quest through the world but 
which nevertheless had registered deeply in our minds. 

The mighty straw hat — size four feet eight — which dominated the 
entrance to the camp of Troop 359, the fish net gateway to the Lake 
Balaton camp, and the enormous size honey cake man in front of still 
another. The ingenious gateway and fence of the "Rakoczi" Music 
Troop, the gateway made of two big flutes, and the fence consisting of 
five strands of wire with the first bars of the Rakoczi March in notes 
formed of thin, cross-cut slices of a birch log for headsand small branches 
for stems. There was the gateway of folding boats made by a Sea Scout 
Crew, the chains of carved wood surrounding the camp of a Budapest 
Troop. 

But it is impossible to describe all of the ingenious and beautiful work 
of the Hungarian Scouts, Suffice it to say that they had done their best 
— and that their best was excellent. 

Seven hundred Scouts of Austria had arrived at the Jamboree, But 
then they belonged to the nearest neighbor country to Hungary and 
only had to cross the border or take the Danube boat from Vienna. 

And so the world came to an end. And how appropriate that our last 
stop was the camp of the Russian Emigrant Scouts of Budapest and 
Bucharest. For them, the world had truly come to an end — the world 
that they used to know. Their Russia is no more. Their leader, an old 
Russian priest, invited us to come to see his troop in Budapest after 
the Jamboree. We thanked him... but we couldn't have done it. 

We had been around the world in one day. We had visited our Brother 
Scouts of all races. 

It had been a wonderful experience, an inspiration. The greatness 
of our movement had been brought home to us more forcibly than 
ever before. 

As we walked through the castle gate and through Denmark, a fairy- 
land opened itself for us. A full moon was sailing over the camp, a light 
fog hung over the grass and all around us were the bright sparkles of 
many small fires. Somewhere, maybe from France, we heard on singing 
around one of the big camp fires. 

Day was done... and tomorrow would be another glorious Jam- 
boree day." 

"On our way home, as we passed through the Copenhagen gate, we 
met a group of Americans going the other way. 

"Where are you going?" we asked. 

"Want to come along? We're off to the flying field!" 

My, we had almost forgotten! Yet everyday we had seen the airplanes 
and gliders swooping over the camp. They had performed for us over 
the arena and we had been told that this was the first Jamboree to in- 
clude a group of flying Scouts. 

65 



We immediately turned around and joined the company. 

The flying camp itself was situated on a hillside, in a group of locust 
trees. Five wooden hangars faced down the slope to the flying field and 
near them were the three big tents housing the gliders and the sail planes. 

Altogether five Scout airplanes and sixteen gliders (five Polish, one 
Austrian, and the rest Hungarian) were here — the wings of the one 
hundred and fifty Scouts in the camp. 

As we approached, a glider was being towed up into the air by a plane. 
When it gained sufficient height, it left its "parent" and set out on its 
own. Daringly, it circled over the field, using every air current to raise 
itself even higher, then decided to return and came down to the ground 
in a perfect, easy landing. The whole thing looked so simple. 

**It is!" explained the Hungarian Scout who had just landed, as we 
went up to admire his craft. 

We had approached a big glider — its wing spread was more than 
twenty yards — which was being pushed into position. A Scout emblem 
was painted on it together with its name, "Karakan" — the brave. 

"We are very proud of that plane and its master!" continued our friend. 
"It is entirely a Scout built plane and has already broken two Hungar- 
ian glider records! 

"The previous records were a distance of 36 kilometers and a height 
of 1,139 meters. The first Monday of the Jamboree, Rotter Lajos stayed 
up until he had flown 84 kilometers and had reached a height of 2,350 
meters, almost a mile and a half!" 

Meanwhile the airplane which had pulled up the glider of our friend, 
was attached to the "Karakan." Rotter Lajos took his place at the controls 
and he was on his way. 

It gave us a tremendous thrill to see him cast off his connection, circle, 
raise and disappear over the Jamboree camp, soaring like an eagle over 
the tree tops... 

Colonel John S. Wilson, former Director of the Boy Scouts 
International Bureau, also recounts several episodes of the Jam- 
boree in Scouting Round the World: 

'The language of our hosts, Magyar, is known to very few outside 
Hungary, with the possible exception of Estonia and Finland. Language 
difficulties were overcome by 'Jamborese,' by a Scout dictionary in 
English, French, German and Hungarian, and by an interpreters' corps 
of 'Cousins' attached to each contingent and available day and night." 

It is recorded in Jamboree Story; 

"The Chief was struck with the picturesque beauty of the gateways 
erected, particularly those of the Hungarian Troops. It was difficult 
at times to get him to tear himself away from some of these, and his 



66 



sketch-book carried many pages of drawings. Family pride was aroused 
when his son Peter dashed up one morning, full of joy, because he had 
been selected to carry the flag of St. George in front of the English con- 
tingent at that afternoon*s march past. 

There was a more poignant moment to come: 

One day positions were reversed, and the people of Hungary paraded 
on the rally ground before the Scouts. The Seoul Jamboree Book of 
the Boy Scouts of America records the final scene: 

The unforgettable demonstration was over, and B.-P. stepped down 
from the platform. He was about to step into his car, when a simple 
peasant woman made her way through the crowd around him and 
presented him with a tremendeous spray of flowers. As he received it 
with a smile and a "Koszonom" — the Hungarian word for "Thank 
you" — she bent down, impulsively seized his hand in her coarse hands 
and kissed it again and again, as tears streamed down her cheeks. 1 

I have heard the Chief laugh off many a tribute, but he was completely 
silent in the car for a long time after that one, for he recognized 
sincerity when he saw it." 

Colonel Wilson also described problems that arose on the 
international level in this period. 

"The 1933 World Jamboree and International Conference were held 
concurrently at Godollo in Hungary — the former, as is proper, dis- 
tracting attention and importance from the latter. It was a sign of the 
times that the Conference passed this resolution: This Conference 
again invites attention to the fact that political propaganda of any 
character, direct or indirect, national or international, must not be 
permitted in any camp or Scout gathering in which representatives of 
other nations are invited to attend.' 

Many other problems were discussed. The question of handicapped 
Scouts again came to the fore. Louis Picalausa, the present head of the 
Junior Red Cross in Belgium, challenged us to 'apply ourselves to this 
work with the assurance that in so doing we shall not only serve our 
beloved Movement, but also the cause of those unfortunate children.' 
Dr. Svojsik, Chief Scout of Czechoslovakia, spoke with great force 
and sincerity on 'Once a Scout, always a Scout'; 'What significance an 
association of ex-Scouts scattered today throughout the world have 
for the ultimate aims of the great work initiated by our Chief, Lord 
Baden Powell!' Lord Hampton gave an outline of the 'Old Scout' scheme 
under consideration in Great Britain. The fruition of this scheme was 
long delayed, owing to lack of suitable leadership and to misgivings as 
to its reactions on Scouting for boys. 

Count Paul Teleki, of whom J shall have more to say later, was the 
Camp Chief of the Jamboree and proved a most able and courteous 



hi 



M AH TO M l.* | 


" " i 


r .4m 








JAMBOREE 



Emblem of the Fourth Wold Jamboree: the White Stag of Hungary. 

host. He was aided by the Hungarian International Commissioner, 
Dr. Fritz de Molnar. The Regent, Admiral Horthy, was in residence 
at the Royal Hunting Lodge, and presided at the opening ceremony, 
riding round the ranks of the 30,000 Scouts from some fifty different 
parts of the world on his big white horse. B. P. was crippled with rheu- 
matism, and we had to hoist him on to his brown charger. But the ride 
did him good, and, despite the shorts, he often rode round the camp 
the followingdays accompanied by Paul Teleki, Fritz and myself." 

In the thirties, an era of increasing nationalistic tensions, it 
had been doubted widely whether boys from different nations 
would be able to camp together in peace. The Jamboree dispelled 
these doubts. It presented scouts with an opportunity to become 
familiar with some 30 to 40 different national groups with various 
languages and customs in an atmosphere of healthy respect for 
each other. Hungarian government officials stated after Godollo: 
"Through their distinguished behavior, the Hungarian scouts 

68 



have performed an invaluable service to the nation." In addition 
to its importance for Hungary, the Jamboree was a cross section 
of world scouting. The 30,000 participants in the Jamboree rep- 
resented 5 continents, 14 religions, 30 languages and 54 nation- 
alities. 

If an organization is dedicated to serving others, its success is 
measured not in terms of individual achievement, but of group 
efforts. 

Thus the success of the Jamboree must not be credited to in- 
dividuals but to the participants' ability to work with each other. 
Baden-Powell expressed this idea at the close of the Jamboree 
in his farewell message. 

The Chief Scout's Farewell 

"Let us pause for one moment for each of us silently to thank 
God for bringing us together as a happy family at Godollo. 

My brothers, those of you who were at the last Jamboree in 
England will remember how the Golden Arrow was handed out 
to each country as a symbol of Goodwill flying forth to all the 
ends of the earth through the Brotherhood of Scouting. 

Now at Godollo we have another symbol Each one of you 
wears the badge of the White Stag of Hungary. 1 want you to 
treasure that badge when you go from here and to remember that, 
like the Golden Arrow, it also has its message and its meaning 
for you. 

The Hungarian hunters of old pursued this miraculous Stag, 
not because they expected to kill it, but because it led them on in 
the joy of the chase to new trails and fresh adventures and so to 
capture happiness. You can look on that White Stag as the pure 
spirit of Scouting, springing forward and upward, ever leading 
you onward and upward to leap over difficulties, to face new 
adventures in your active pursuit of the higher aims of Scouting 
— aims which bring you happiness. 

Those aims are to do your duty wholeheartedly to God, to your 
country, and to your fellow men by carrying out the Scout Law. 
In that way you will, each one of you, be helping to bring about 
God's kingdom upon earth — the reign of peace and goodwill. 

Therefore, before leaving you, I ask you Scouts this question: 
Will you do your best to make friendship with others and peace 
in the world?" 



69 



NEW DIRECTIONS 
Internal Renewal 

As soon as the gates of Godollo closed, Scout leaders were 
already searching for new goals. They sought to assess the weak- 
nesses and strengths of the movement. Taking stock became a 
necessary task for the further development of Hungarian scout- 
ing. The Jamboree had been until then the greatest single effort 
of the Hungarian scouts. Its success was recognized universally, 
but there was a need to identify shortcomings as well. 

It could be foreseen that an anticlimatic mood would affect 
scouts, the government, and the nation. Government agencies 
and local institutions had helped generously. Not surprisingly, 
they were wearied and displayed less enthusiasm than before in 
dealing with scouting. Many scouts and leaders became over- 
confident. There was a danger that formal trappings and public 
appearances would seem more important than the fundamental 
educational aspects of scouting. Countering such trends, national 
leadership initiated a reassessment of the internal directions of 
the movement. Fortunately, the need for introspection was felt 
by both scoutmasters and scouts. They all turned with renewed 
enthusiasm to the task of determining the new responsibilities 
of scouting. 

The time was also ripe for modernization of the training pro- 
gram, which until then had been modeled closely on the structure 
provided by Lord Baden-Powell. The leadership undertook the 
task of enriching the program with distinctly Hungarian features. 
Inspired by the falukutatok (village explorers), a group of folk- 
lorists and populist writers who were largely former scouts, the 
scouting program turned to the study and preservation of folk 
tradition. 

Leadership training became more intense. The number of 
trainees was increased, and the quality of their training was im- 
proved. Over 1,000 patrol leaders and 250 scoutmasters received 
their training at the Harshegy scout park in 1935. The by-laws 
of the Association were also revised and updated. The country had 
only a few thousand scouts when the first by-laws were written 



70 



in 1920. Fifteen years later, membership had mushroomed to 
50,000. It was obvious that organizational forms conceived for 
a small organization were no longer adequate for current needs. 

Viewed from a perspective of 40 to 50 years, the process of 
revitalizing the Association might appear straightforward. Actu- 




Caricature of Count Pal Teleki as a village explorer. 

ally, several divergent trends developed. Representatives of one 
direction were Sandor Sik, Pal Teleki, and Dezso Major, who 
expressed concern over the emphasis on external appearances 
during the Jamboree. As soon as the Jamboree was over, they 
urged a turn towards spiritual values, with renewed emphasis on 
educational activities. Followers of the other school of thought, 
led by Gyozo Temesy, Ferenc Farkas, and Bela Kolozsvary, 
among others, also maintained that the ideals of scouting should 
remain intact, but they proposed that the program of scouting 
ought to be broadened and scouts should also participate in other, 



71 




Title page of Magyar Cserkisz featuring a scout glider. 



not strictly scout-related, activities. This group proposed the 
modernization of the training program and recommended that 
scouting should aim not only at character-building but also at 



72 



providing the skills necessary for serving Hungary directly; that 
is, scouts should seek an active role in the creation of a better 
future for the country. They should not only preserve the intel- 
lectual treasures of Hungary, but also spread them. Both schools 
of thought exerted a strong influence on scouting. 

The principal publication of the Hungarian Scout Association, 
Magyar Cserkesz, was made available at a few cents per issue, 
so that anyone could afford to buy it. A new series of inexpensive 
scout books was initiated. 

A gliding program for scouts, developed in earlier years on the 
Harmashatarhegy Mountain near Budapest, was expanded. 
Hangars were acquired by the scouts in 1934. 

Ferenc Farkas and Frigyes Molnar were awarded the "Silver 
Fox" medal by Lord Baden-Powell. They received it for their 
meritorious activities in international relations. 

The activities of the Hole, the elite group of patrol leaders, 
were intensified. It developed into a training team. The service it 
provided at Godollo significantly enhanced its reputation. Initi- 
ally, only the 100 best patrol leaders could belong to the team. 
When the unit came under the leadership of Bela Kolozsvary, 
these rules were modified and membership grew. The team which 
had been limited mainly to Budapest, expanded its activity to 
theentire country. HOK members annually received special train- 
ing at camps held at the end of the summer. Thus, they would be 
well prepared at the beginning of the scouting year (in September) 
to help in patrol leader courses and training programs. The HOK 
camps required serious physical, intellectual, and emotional com- 
mitment. Besides a thorough knowledge of scouting skills, the 
participants also obtained instruction in folk art, folk culture, 
and current national affairs. 

HOK became, in effect, the backbone of scouting leadership. 
It provided a rallying ground for young scout leaders imbued by 
fervent patriotism and willing to make sacrifices for their ideals. 
Its members spearheaded the drive to establish a base in folk 
culture for scouting activities. At the same time, they were the 
sparks of a spiritual renewal and of intellectual resistance against 
foreign ideologies during and after the war years. In fact, the spirit 
of the HOK has been a main guiding force in the development 
of Hungarian scouting ever since. 



73 



Successes A broad 



The Hungarians sent a representation of 350 scouts to the Polish 
national camp in Spala in 1935. In a sense, this had been expected 
of them, because the Polish contingent at Godollo had been 
second in size only to the British group. Moreover, close ties of 
friendship had linked Hungarian and Polish scouts ever since the 




Entrance gate of the Hungarian camp at the Polish National Jamboree 

at Spala, 1935. 

Second World Jamboree in Denmark in 1924. Pal Teleki, the 
leader of the Hungarian representation, was assisted by the 
president of the association, Antal Papp. 

The well-known scout artist, Lajos Marton, painted a portrait 
of the Polish patriot, Josef Pilsudski, of legendary fame. The 
painting was presented to the Polish scouts by the Hungarian con- 

74 



Hungarian scouts in front of the Czestochowa pilgrimage church 

in Poland. 



tingent. Just at the time of the Jamboree at Spala, the creation 
of a monument to Pilsudski started as a Polish national campaign. 
Every Pole who traveled in the area took a wheelbarrow of earth 
to the memorial mound. The Hungarians followed their example. 
Led by Pal Teleki, 100 scouts transported as many wheelbarrows 
of earth to the monument of the Polish national hero. This period 
witnessed a culmination of friendly ties between the two nations. 
The Poles themselves recalled proudly the numerous historical 
links between Poland and Hungary. It is understandable, then, 
that the Hungarian scouts received an enthusiastic welcome from 
their hosts and from the people of Poland. 

Exchanging gifts and autographs was just as intense at Spala 
as it had been at the Jamboree in Godollo. The most sought- 
after item was the feather grass that the Hungarians wore on their 
hats. The Hungarian scout store is reported to have sold 200 kg 
in the first few days of the camp. Additional supplies had to be 
brought in by plane. The Poles could not believe that it was a 
plant; they called it perk, i.e. "feather T 

The Czechoslovak representation at the camp included several 
Hungarian Scouts, members of the Hungarian minority in Czecho- 
slovakia. One of t hem regularly sent reports to the scout magazine 



75 



Opening ceremony of the Fifth World Jamboree at Ermelunden in the 
Netherlands, 1937. Royal Prince Knut, youngest son of the King, declares 
the vamp open. At the right: Pal Telei, Antal Papp, Frigyes Moindr. 

of his home troop. The camp administration issued him a badge 
inscribed "prasa" the Polish word for press. The badge served 
the scout reporter well everywhere except when he returned to 
his own group: he had to endure permanent teasing by his fellows 
because prasa in Slovak means "pig." 

One of the last highlights in the interwar history of scouting 
was the Fifth World Jamboree in Vogelenzang, the Netherlands, 
in 1937. The Hungarian contingent, led by Bela Kolozsvary, 
was prepared thoroughly, using the techniques that had worked 



76 



Carved chair, made by the young workers in the Hungarian scout troop 
of Ersekitjvdr (Move Zdmky, Czechoslovakia). 



77 



so well on previous occasions. The selection and preparation 
of participants had begun a year in advance. 

The arrival of over 500 Hungarian scouts in the Netherlands 
was awaited eagerly not only by the organizers and other scout 
groups, but also by a Dutch group of former foster parents. Fol- 
lowing the end of World War I, thousands of Hungarian children 
escaped the misery of depressed economic conditions in Hungary 
through an opportunity to stay with families in the Netherlands 
and Belgium. Many children had lived for several years with 
their foster parents. One of the organizers of this foster-parent 
movement, Walle Von Popta, eighty years old at the time of the 
writing of this history, still remembered the Hungarian children 
fondly. 

The exceptional welcome extended to the Hungarian contin- 
gent was elicited largely by their fame as the organizers of the 
Fourth World Jamboree. Consequently, the Hungarians were 
expected to perform in an exceptional manner. Luckily, no one 
was disappointed. In particular, the Hungarian campfires were 
thought to have a unique magical quality, offering not only enter- 
tainment but also edification. 

The Hungarian scouts offered an outstanding pageant in the 
presence of the Dutch royal couple. They presented Queen 
Wilhelmina with a giant honey-cake heart, in gratitude for the 
unprecedented sacrifice and kindness of the Dutch foster parents. 
Smaller honey-cake hearts were presented to other Dutch guests. 
The presentation ended with the Dutch national anthem sung by 
the Hungarians. The royal couple was so touched that Prince 
Bernhard returned to the camp the next day to thank the Hun- 
garian scouts. 

Scouting and Young Workers 

The scouting organization shouldered another new task in 
the years following Godollo. From its very start, scouting had 
extended its programs to blue-collar workers and apprentices; 
there were entire troops of blue-collar youth that were sponsored 
by vocational schools or industrial plants. The need was felt, 
however t to extend the benefits of scouting to a wider group, even 
to those young people who did not want to embrace all aspects 



78 



of scouting. Therefore, in the mid- 1 930' s, the Scout Associaton 
began to organize vacation camps for apprentices and young 
workers who were not scouts. Such camps had been held earlier 
on an experimental basis, but now the Orszdgos Tdrsadalom- 
biztosho Jntezet (Hungarian Social Insurance Institute) granted 
ample means for such vacation camps. Scouts and leaders volun- 
teered to organize these camps, in expression of their ideal to 
serve the entire youth of Hungary. The number of participants 
grew progressively after 1935, reaching many thousands. A further 
problem, that of extending scouting into the villages and rural 
areas, was explored in a tentative manner. After some successful 
and laudable initiatives, the upheavals following World War II 
put an end to these efforts. 



Minority Scouts 

After World War I. large areas of Hungary with considerable 
Hungarian-speaking populations were annexed to Czecho- 
slovakia, Rumania and Yugoslavia. In these regions, it was still 
possible for Hungarian youth to carry on with Scouting using 
the Hungarian language and Scout traditions. During the 1920*s 
and 30's, national minorities were generally treated more humanly 
than nowadays, and nowhere was this more evident than in Scout- 
ing. Thus, Hungarian Scouts in Czechoslovakia operated as an 
autonomous unit of the Czechoslovak Scout Association, under 
the leadership of Jozsef Mrenna. 

Similar organizational forms of Scouting existed in many 
countries with large national minorities. The Fourth International 
Boy Scout Conference, held in 1926 at Kandersteg, Switzerland, 
adopted a special resolution recommending that minority scout 
troops should be allowed to operate autonomously, using their 
own language. The text of the resolution states the following: 

"The Conference earnestly exhorts the National Boy Scout 
Associations in countries where there are minorities to give these 
minorities the right to form Scout Troops, which, while belonging 
to the National Association and subject to their statutes, have 
the right to use their own language in their inner life and to nom- 
inate their own Scoutmasters and leaders, who, however, must be 
citizens of the State." 



79 



Leaders of the Hungarian autonomous unit of the Czechoslovak 
Scout Association. 

Pal Teleki, who at that time was already a highly respected 
member of the Boy Scouts International Committee, and Fngyes 
Molnar, International Commissioner of Hungary, were instru- 
mental in formulating this resolution. 



Reunion with the Scouts of Northern Hungary 

In 1938 part of Northern Hungary was reunited with Hun- 
gary Scout troops in the area were visited by scouts from Hun- 
gary' The Hungarian scouts who had lived for 20 years under 
foreign rule were presented with scout equipment and books, 
and had an opportunity to renew their Hungarian scout oath. 

The reunion of youth produced many memorable experiences. 
The participants in the visits could note that young Hungarians 
in Northern Hungary were more conscious of their national 
identity and were more cohesive than Hungarians living within 
the former borders. They had learned what it meant to live without 
a homeland. Moreover, they had realized immediately after the 



K0 



change of sovereignty in 1920 that the forces threatening their 
ethnic identity could be countered only through mutual under- 
standing and common effort. As a result, their communities were 
free of dissension and social conflict. 

The Hungarian minorities in all the annexed areas fought 
hard to maintain their ethnic identity, pooling their resources 
to counteract the ever-worsening conditions around them. Most 
were willing to disregard rank, power, and wealth for the benefit 
of fellow Hungarians and the common Hungarian cause. 

Local leaders, educated youth in particular, reached out for 
every member of the national minority, especially in the villages. 
They went among those who had lost hope and bad become demor- 
alized; they organized cultural presentations and service camps; 
they strengthened each other in the awareness of their ethnic 
identity. 

Scouting in Transylvania 

Between the two world wars, scouting was for some time the 
only institution in Transylvania in which Hungarian students 
and workers could experience Hungarian community life with- 
out Rumanian supervision. The Hungarian scouts in Tran- 
sylvania maintained strong ties with the organization in Hun- 
gary proper by means of participation in jamborees, correspon- 
dence, and through scout publications. Both had the same organi- 
zational structure, practical training, traditions, and spirit. The 
Hungarian scouts in Transylvania belonged to the Rumanian 
Scouts Association, yet their activities resembled the Hungarian 
Scouting movement to a much greater degree than it did Ruman- 
ian scouting. 

The Hungarian scout troops in Transylvania organized annual 
camps, preferably in the Szekely region. The scout troop of the 
Roman Catholic Secondary School in Kolozsvar was the un- 
official guiding force. It stood out in its internal organization, 
practical scouting knowledge, and in the sheer number of its 
members and supporters. Its troopmaster was the tireless Lajos 
Puskas, a highly respected teacher. He created an effective patrol 
leader training system in Transylvania by the I930's, without 
a formal framework. Every year, the Kolozsvar scout troup 



81 



invited five to ten boys from each of the other troops in Tran- 
sylvania to its summer camp. Participants were usually patrol 
leaders, accompanied by their scoutmasters. The camps were 
actually training sessions for each leadership level. 

A National Jamboree organized in Brasso (Brasov) in 1936 
was the swan song of the Rumanian Scout Association. The 
organization was officially abolished in 1937. King Carol es- 
tablished in its place a "National Guard Youth Organization" 
patterned after the Iron Guard, an extreme right-wing nation- 
alistic organization in Rumania and made it obligatory for all 
young people. This move was a mortal blow to Hungarian youth 
organizations in Transylvania. Scouting had offered a place for 
Hungarian youths to educate themselves while helping others, 
learn folksongs, trace the history of scattered Hungarian set- 
tlements such as that of the Csangos in Moldavia, and recite 
the folk ballads of the Szekelys. These opportunities ended. 

Scouting activities continued underground for one or two 
years after the organization was disbanded, without uniforms 
or emblems. Scout camping was outlawed, but some scouts out- 
maneuvered the authorities by organizing long-range hikes. 
Scouting revived after Northern Transylvania was reunited with 
Hungary in 1940. 



Scouts in Southern Hungary 

The return of the Bacska area from Yugoslavia to Hungary 
in 1941 took place during a period of turmoil and received less 
attention in general than the return of Northern Hungary in 1938 
and of Transylvania in 1940. The transition nonetheless inspired 
notable scout contributions. As a result of tireless campaigning 
by Kalman Nemeth, pastor of the village of Istensegits, and skill- 
ful negotiations on the part of two prime ministers, Pal Teleki 
and later of Laszlo Bardossy, the Hungarians living in isolation 
in the Rumanian region of Bukovina were given an opportunity 
to resettle in Southern Hungary. From 1942 to 1944, numerous 
scout summer camps were held in the resettlement area. The 
scouts took part in the everyday activites of the village and they 
organized activities for the village youth of the newly settled 

82 



groups. These camps reinforced the fellowship between the re- 
settled Hungarians and the mother country. With forethought, 
scout leaders sent troops from Transylvania to these camps, It 
was reasoned that those who had experienced Rumanian oc- 
cupation firsthand and had just been reunited with the mother 
country would be best suited to help the new settlers. 




Delegation of overseas scout leaders visit Cleveland's great Magyar 
daily. The cancellation of the A merican Scout Jamboree at Washington, 
DC, owing to a paralysis epidemic, found the Hungarian Scout 
Delegation on the high seas. But the Magyar Scouts at least saw the 
United States for themselves, visiting some of the large centers and 
historic spots, and, of course. Bov Scout camps. Here they are photog- 
raphed in the editorial offices of the "Szabadsdg" daily at Cleveland 
From left to right: Paul John Petheo, editor-in-chief; Dr. Nicholas 
Handlovits, Regnum Marianum Scout leader, Budapest; Professor 
Bernardin Pdlos, S.O. CisL, Zirc; Dr. Edgar Nagel, head of the Dele- 
gation; Herbert L Kobrdk. general manager. Consolidated Press; 
Harry L Davis, former mayor of Cleveland; Dr. Alexander Pohl chiej 
ofGodollo municipality; Professor Andrew Szold, M.D.; and Dr. Ka- 
pistran Hegyi, O.S.B. 



83 



Scouts Serve at the Eucharistic Congress 



In 1938, Budapest was the site of the Ninth Eucharistic Con- 
gress of the Roman Catholic Church. The Scout Association 
was invited to assist in the organization of this event. Ferenc 
Farkas, who had been chief of staff of the Godollo Jamboree, 
was asked to plan and direct the logistics of the Congress. The 
scouts posted honor guards, took charge of souvenir sales, orga- 
nized welcoming committees, and guided foreign guests. Over 
6,000 scouts were involved in such activities. Contemporary Hun- 
garian and foreign newspaper reports indicated that the scouts 
lived up to expectations. This service was considered one of the 
outstanding "good deeds" of the movement. 



84 



VI 



AT THE CROSSROADS 
The Abrahdmhegy Conference 

The difficult period that began at the end of the 1930*8 brought 
concerted attacks on scouting by extreme right-wing politicians 
who became vociferous in Hungary just as they did all over 
Europe at this time. Prime Minister Pal Teleki was instrumental 
in counteracting these attacks, and the organization successfully 
resisted efforts to militarize scouting. Foreign relations of the 
Scout Association could no longer be maintained fully, however; 
attendance at international camps and visits by foreign scouts 
stopped after 1940, When the Chief Scout of the World, Lord 
Baden-Powell, died on January 8th, 1941, the Hungarian Scout 
Association honored him in memorial services, despite attacks 
of the right-wing press. 

Teleki's views are described eloquently by Colonel J. S. Wilson 
in "Scouting Round the World'*: 

"I wrote an editorial for the special issue of Jamboree for the 
third quarter of 1943 on the Fourth Scout Law: 

One of the subjects for discussion before the Conference of 
the Hungarian Boy Scout Association, in December, 1940, was 
the repeal of this Law of Brotherhood. It was argued that a Hun- 
garian scout could not consider the enemies of his country as his 
brothers. Paul Teleki (the Premier of Hungary) settled the matter 
to the satisfaction of those present thus: *In 19 14,' he said, 'I entered 
Macsva with the Kraus Army. I was by the first military bridge 
thrown over the Sava. Behind me were some old Hussars, men of 
the Frontier Guard. I heard one say to his comrades, his pipe 
between his teeth: "These Serbs are really brave enemies. It is 
a pleasure to fight against them." So it is that when I face a man 
who is fighting for his country honestly and conscientiously, I 
feel there is some kind of a spiritual bond between us. I look on 
him in a curious kind of way as my comrade and my brother. In 
the same way the old Hussar spoke from the depths of his Hun- 
garian soul of the enemy worthy of him. When we say that every 
other Scout is our brother, we presuppose that those who are 
our present enemies are faithfully serving their own country, in 



85 




Lord Badert-ToweH of Gilwell 

Portrait of Lord Baden-Powell in 1933, Drawing by Lajos Mdrton. 

all honour, as their Scout duty. He who does not so serve is not 
a Scout, and not our brother. I esteem as myself him who is 
honestly serving the needs of his country. I subscribe whole- 
heartedly to this Scout Law.' 

It is beyond the bounds of possibility that all will be satisfied with 
this argument, but it is one which appeals to us, and which makes 
it possible for us to look forward to the time when former enemies 



86 






Statistical data on Scout camps, 1933—1942, 



X7 



will be reunited in the Scout Brotherhood, and make a further, 
and this time more determined effort to achieve a more lasting 
peace. It is not infrequently that brothers in the human family 
fight each other; they compose their quarrel: they unite together 
for the honour of the family. So with the Scout family, brothers 
can quarrel, they can compose that quarrel and they can unite 
together for the honour of their Brotherhood. But they must be 
both honest in their quarrel and equally sincere in their belief in 
Scouting. 

I have given voice to my personal feelings in this matter, as did 
Count Paul Teleki, but I also believe that Scouting, internation- 
ally and nationally, accepts the same kind of principle." 

In September, 1940, a small group of top-level Scout leaders 
gathered in a summer lodge on Abrahamhegy at Lake Balaton, 
at the invitation of Prime Minister Pal Teleki. The gathering 
included Antal Papp, Emil Ery, Ede Farago, Father Koszter, 
Bela Witz, Hugo Ulbrich, Imre Szoke, and Ferenc Farkas. Their 
discussions centered on the formulation of a new scout training 
program. This was a dire necessity in order to maintain the 
uniqueness and viability of scouting. The government-spon- 
sored official youth organizations called Levente had gradually 
adopted the educational program of the Scout Association, 
together with some of its laws, its leadership training program, 
and many of its other valuable aspects. Almost everything that 
the Scout Association had developed painstakingly over the 
years was taken over. 

The new scout training program envisioned at Abrahamhegy 
was unique in that it was based on two foundations, the Bible 
and Hungarian culture. All theoretical and practical aspects of 
scouting were tied to these foundations, which also provided a 
spiritual framework for all scouting activities. The program's 
creators, gathered at the Abrahamhegy conference, can be 
called truly prophetic. More than 40 years later, the program they 
instituted is still the best method of Hungarian scout training 
in the diaspora. 

One of the most valuable new initiatives that grew out of the 
search for new directions of scouting was the regoles movement 
which sought to preserve Hungarian folklore, traditions, folk 
music, song, and dance, by making it part of the scout heritage. 
Rover scouts took to the new program with enthusiasm. They 



88 



Count Pal Teleki, Chief Seoul, Member of the International Committee 
(1929—1939)— Dr. Antal Papp, President, Member of the International 
Committee (1939—1947) — General Ferenc Farkas, Chief Scout 
from 1942 until 1980. 

89 



organized their camps around exploratory projects: they visited 
villages, became friends with the peasants, mapped local history 
and traditions, collected and put into writing folk songs and 
customs. Regoles is remembered as one of the most wonderful 
activities of scouting during the I940*s. 



Weathering the Storm 

Colonel J. S. Wilson wrote of Pal Teleki in "Scouting Round 
the World": 

"...Scouting in Hungary was fortunate to obtain the whole- 
hearted support and encouragement of one of the country's most 
noted citizens. Count Paul Teleki, Professor of Budapest Uni- 
versity, a geographer of international eminence, several times 
Prime Minister, became Chief Scout, Hon. Chief Scout, a mem- 
ber of the International Committee for many years, Camp Chief 
of the Godollo Jamboree and a faithful friend and disciple of 
B.-P. His influence and inspiration were a major factor in the 
success of Scouting in Hungary, and contributed to its success 
in other countries as well. His tragic death in March, 1941, set an 
example of loyalty to his country and of the first Scout Law: *A 
Scout's honour is to be trusted.' In him, World Scouting lost one 
of its well-beloved members and best-informed upholders.'" 

The death of Pal Teleki in April, 1941, was a tremendous loss 
to the country and to Hungarian Scouting. He had enjoyed the 
respect of the entire nation. His repute had protected the Scout 
Association and thwarted attacks from the political right. Follow- 
ing his death, these attacks became more frequent and vociferous. 
German influence was largely responsible for this. Scouting 
had been banned in Germany. It was replaced by the Hitler Youth, 
an organization with clear political overtones and incapable of 
tolerating the existence of any other youth movement. The youth 
leader of the Third Reich, Axmann, exerted pressure to put a 
similar policy into effect in Hungary as well. His ultimate aim 
here, too, was the total suppression of Scouting. 

Scouting became particularly difficult in Hungary when the 
government-sponsored Levente youth organization was placed 
under military command. The military leadership envisioned 
that scouting, with over 10,000 well-trained leaders and scout- 



90 



91 



masters, should become part of the Levente. Attainment of this 
goal seemed only a matter of time. Behind the Levente stood 
an entire state apparatus, with a supporting budget of 20 million 
pengd. A government order to disband scouting had already 
been prepared, but the personal intervention of Regent Horthy 
and skillful action on the part of the Minister of Interior, Fe- 
renc Keresztes-Fischer, prevented its execution. Scouting could 
continue under the terms of a decree issued by the office of the 
Prime Minister on March 12, 1942. The decree changed the name 
of the Scout Association to "Scouting Movement." It was to be 
headed by a Chief Scout appointed by the Regent and sub- 
ordinated directly to the Ministry of Religion and Education. 
New by-laws governing organization and activities were prepared 
in August, 1942. They did not alter the main tenets of scouting 
with the exception of one significant aspect: until then, national 
leadership had been elected, but now it was to be appointed by 
the Chief Scout, The General Assembly and the Executive Com- 
mittee were abolished. 

Ferenc Farkas, major general and commander of the Ludovika 
Military Academy, was named Chief Scout. Farkas had already 
given 22 years of service to scouting and had distinguished 
himself as Chief of Staff of the 1933 Jamboree at Godollo. 
Even he could not stem entirely the pressures exerted on scouting, 
despite his best efforts. Attacks on scouting increased. Some 
members of the Parliament campaigned for a merging of the 
Levente and scout organizations. Farkas realized that he would 
have to enlist the public in the defense if scouting was to survive 
in Hungary; he issued press releases, bulletins, and held news 
conferences aimed at ensuring the uninterruped work of scouting. 

In attempting to assess the work of Ferenc Farkas as Chief 
Scout, it can be concluded that intense political and governmental 
pressures forced him to make some concessions, but he managed 
to safeguard the ideals of scouting. The Scout laws remained 
unchanged. He did not interfere in the activities of scout troops. 
The new regulations that he had to issue touched upon external 
appearances. They had little effect on the grass-roots organi- 
zation; the substance of scouting remained the same. Actually, 
according to many influential and clear-sighted scout leaders 
of the period, the concept of an all-powerful head can be traced 
back to Pal Teleki. Teleki had sensed at the end of the 1930's 



92 



Swearing-in of Ferenc Farkas as the new Chief Seoul in 1942. He stands 
in uniform at the center of the picture. To his right: Dr. Istvdn Fay, 
Deputy Minister of Education. 

that difficult times were to come. He saw the need for scouting 
to be led by one individual who is empowered to act on behalf 
of the organization. 

The adherence of the Scouting Movement to the ideals of 
scouting was also demonstrated by the maintenance of relations 
with other scout associations during the war, as far as possible. 
For example, the Hungarian Scout Association kept in touch 
until October, 1943, via Portugal, with the exiled Polish Scout 
Association which had its headquarters in London. On two oc- 
casions in the fall of 1943, reports were sent to the World Bureau 
of Scouting, addressed to the Swedish crown-prince Gustav 
Adolf and relating "some important data in the life and work of 
the Hungarian Boy Scout Movement in the years 1941—1943." 

Educational activities continued virtually unchanged at the 
troop and district level, despite the war and the oppressive political 
climate. Educational activity was maintained in meetings and 
camps. It received its strong support in the Scout periodicals 
Magyar Cserkesz and Vezetok Lapja (Leaders* Magazine). The 
scout press was undaunted by external criticism and declined to 



93 



accommodate to social and political fashions. As the war came 
to dominate all facets of daily life, the scout program became 
increasingly oriented towards practical service of others, such 
as caring for refugees and for wounded soldiers and civilians. 

After the right-wing coup of October 15, 1944, a new and very 
serious problem confronted Hungarian scouting. An order of 
the Ministry of Education demanded the merging of the Scouting 

Movement with the right-extremist Hungarista Orszem (Hun- 
garian Sentry) movement. The order was never executed, though, 

because of the war events and the impending siege of Budapest. 

The Final Years 

The damage inflicted on the country by the war naturally af- 
fected scouting as well. The furnishings and equipment of scout 
houses, parks, and boathouses were destroyed or disappeared. 
Many of the leaders lost their lives, became prisoners of war, or fled 
to the West. For those who remained, nothing was left besides 
the undying spirit of scouting with which to serve the ravaged 
country. 

Scouting was restarted after World War II in a nearly hopeless 
situation. An interim Executive Committee was formed as soon 
as the siege of Budapest had ended in February, 1945. Its first 
task was the reorganization of troops and the renewal of contacts 
with scouts outside Hungary. It undertook the massive effort of 
reorganization in the face of the threat of arrest and deportation 
by the Soviet occupation forces or the new authorities. This 
menace hung over everybody who undertook public activity out- 
side the officially sanctioned channels. 

Scouts immediately sought to serve others. In addition to 
reconstructing scout institutions, they provided manifold public 
services, such as the repairing of public buildings in Budapest, 
helping above all with the restoration of the Central Public 
Library, harvesting crops instead of going to summer camps, and 
ministering to those who returned from prisoner-of-war camps. 
The amount of troops as well as their membership mushroomed 
in a few months at an unprecedented rate. If it is true, as Spencer 
said, that the strength of a nation is demonstrated in its youth, then 
the decimated youth of vanquished Hungary certainly proved its 
strong will to survive. 



94 



The Interim Executive Committee reorganized the staff of 
the National Headquarters, excluding anyone "tainted" with any 
German connections. Although this resulted in a split of the 
leadership, it did not affect the enthusiastic activity of troops all 
over the country, at least not in the beginning. Soviet-controlled 
governmental organs did not wait long, however, before taking 
action against scouting, Harrassment began by requiring that all 
former scoutmasters, even down to the assistant scoutmaster 
level, be cleared politically before getting recertified. Had this 
process been left to the scout leaders themselves, there would 
have been no difficulty with recertification. Instead, there was 
constant intervention by the political parties, naturally causing 
much damage. Soon, two distinct factions evolved within the 
organization. These factions did not differ in their adherence to 
the principles of scouting but merely reacted in different ways to 
political pressures. One group sought to continue scouting as it 
had operated traditionally, without compromises; the other was 
willing to make concessions to the new system, in order to assure 
survival. The division had serious consequences. The Ministry 
of the Interior used it as an excuse for interference, attacking 
individual leaders as well as troops. It issued an order that called 
for the obstruction of scouting by every available means, in order 
to destroy it as soon as possible. 

The scouts had no one to turn to for assistance. No peace 
treaty had been signed yet; only a cease-fire was in effect. The 
Allied Control Commission, stationed in Budapest, did not 
substitute for foreign embassies. Without diplomatic represen- 
tation, it was impossible to call upon the help of world scouting 
organizations. 

Arbitrary actions began throughout the country against persons 
involved in scouting, culminating in deportations. Despite these 
adverse circumstances, a strong will to survive was manifest 
within the movement. Scouting was still the ideal of Hungarian 
youth. The evidence was seen in the large number of troops 
continuing to function in spite of all difficulties. 

At the end of 1945, following the parliamentary elections, the 
Scout Association also chose new leaders to replace the temporary 
leadership. While the elections did not — and could not — bring 
comfort, the very fact that the organization now had permanently 
elected leaders presented the appearance of progress. National 



95 



Headquarters became more active and succeeded in re-establish- 
ing contact with world scouting. The scout magazines, Magyar 
Cserkesz and Vezetok Lapja, were republished, and the Magyar 
Kiscserkesz (Hungarian Cub Scout) magazine was established. 
The leaders of the organization and individual scoutmasters 
appealed to organs of the state administration in order to regain 
possessions and properties of the Scout Association which had 
been taken over by other groups or were confiscated by the state 
after the war. Not all of their efforts were in vain, primarily be- 
cause many former scouts and supporters of scouting were still 
employed in the administration. Hardly any favorable government 
decisions could be credited to the official point of view of the 
various government departments. Rather, they were reflections 
of the good will of former scouts in administrative positions. 

Scouting met with increasing difficulties in spite of the official 
permission to operate. Petty maneuvers directed by the Min- 
istry of the Interior against the scouts began in 1946. Vandalism 
against scout meeting rooms and camps became frequent. The govern- 
ment exerted pressure to unite all youth organizations into one 
political movement. Actions were directed both against the central 
leadership in an attempt to shake it up and against individual 
troops. Scout leaders were pressured to join committees which 
sought to coordinate the work of all youth organizations. These 
committees consistently adopted resolutions that clashed with 
the ideals of scouting in one way or another. In small towns and 
rural areas, local government officials used every means to ob- 
struct scouting activities. They forcibly drove youth into the 
Magyar Demokratikus Ifiusagi Szdvetseg (Hungarian Democra- 
tic Youth Association). In many places, the work of troops was 
arbitrarily banned. Where troops were functioning in factories, 
the factory committees revoked their support and consequently 
the troops lost their social and economic bases. Frequently, 
individuals lost their jobs because of their affiliation with scouting. 

The double-tongued government attitude is exemplified by a 
characteristic episode: just as the serious attacks on the organi- 
zation were beginning, scouts received a ceremonious greeting 
from the President of the Republic on the pages of the recently 
reinitiated scout periodical. Of course, this misled many people: 
it appeared that if the President was sending the organization 
official greetings, there was no need to be alarmed. 



96 



The Disbanding 



On May 13, 1946, the Scout Association was presented with 
a state order, signed by Laszlo Rajk, Minister of the Interior, 
calling for a re-examination of its activities. As an official pre- 
text of the order, recent press attacks on scouting were cited. 
The results were never made public. The investigation coerced 
many scouts, however, into quitting the organization or stepping 
down from positions of leadership. Those who were still willing 
to act as leaders were confronted daily with newspaper articles 
aimed against scouting. These articles reported "discovery of 
scout conspiracies" and even fabricated accounts of Russian 
soldiers being murdered in the streets of Budapest by scouts. 
Although evidence for these allegations failed to materialize, 
the accounts were never retracted or amended. 

An order to disband the Association was prepared by the 
Ministry of the Interior in July, 1946. The news was leaked to 
Parliament, however, and several members of Parliament de- 
manded information about the order. As a result, the government 
decided to change course. The Ministry of the Interior called 
a General Assembly of the Association on July 22, 1946. Scout- 
masters were not allowed to attend, however. Of the nine districts 
composing the Association, only one was represented. The 
meeting was dominated by representatives of various other youth 
organizations sent by the Ministry. It was decided to change 
the name of the Association and to institute major changes not 
only in the by-laws but even in the Scout Laws and Oath them- 
selves. Thus, the wording of the second scout law, "A scout 
faithfully carries out his duties towards God, country, and fellow 
man," was changed to "A scout faithfully carries out his duties." 
The same phrase was also omitted from the Scout Oath and the 
Scoutmasters' Oath. These omissions symbolized more than just 
changes in format: dedication to God, country, and fellow man 
is the basis of scouting, and without this founding principle it 
ceases to serve its purpose. 

The outrage felt as a result of the mutilation of the Scout Law 
and Oath is expressed eloquently in a parliamentary speech by 
Representative Gyula Dessewfy. 

"No words can express adequately my deep consternation upon 

learning of the crippling of the Scout law that prescribes faith in 

God and humane behavior. Scouting is a great international 

97 



organization. For decades, it fostered the education of humane 
Europeans whose ideals are represented in the Atlantic Charter 
and in the United Nations. 1 daresay that Scouting is the breeding 
ground of the new type of humanity, of decent man, of the man 
of the United Nations, Scouting has its international rules, but it is 
also characterized by profound spiritual and intellectual founda- 
tions. These cannot be altered by anybody. I call your attention 
to the fact that there has been only one attempt, so far, to change 
these ground rules of Scouting, in the period of fascism." 
Some naive persons still clung to the hope, in spite of the 
changes, that it would be possible to carry on with a somewhat 
diluted form of scouting. This hope was not to be fulfilled. Most 
scout houses were closed and most organized activities halted. 
Those elected to new leadership positions were allowed to work 
only as long as they strove to amalgamate scouting with the 
unified youth movement. Finally, another recertification of 
scoutmasters and troops was ordered. By this time only 160 troops 
remained, many of them with dwindling numbers. 

Another General Assembly meeting was called on March 23, 
1947, It was held because the government realized the importance 
of the upcoming World Jamboree in Moisson, France. The 
participation of a Hungarian contingent was uncertain until 
the last minute; government approval was granted only in 
mid-April. The approval was followed by hurried preparations, 
starting with competitions to choose the participants. Those who 
were selected participated in the final preparatory camp held at the 
Harshegy training park. On August 6, two hundred Hungarian 
scouts were permitted to leave Hungary forthe Jamboree. Of 
course, they went under the supervision of a political observer. 
Among the scoutmasters of the contingent, there were planted spies 
of the Ministry of the Interior as well as members of the political 
section of the Hungarian army. To add insult to injury, the Scout 
Association had to express publicly its gratitude to the most 
hated man in Hungary, Matyas Rakosi, the leader of the Com- 
munist Party. The front-page headline of the Magyar Cserkesz 
read, "We are going after all. . . Our thanks for the help of Matyas 
Rakosi" 

One of the scout leaders accompanying the contingent wrote 
the following: 

"In general, the contingent performed well in the various 
competitions, taking first prize for campfire skits. The Hungarian 



98 




9AU21A0U! 
MOISSON 

lis 



m 

JAMBOREE 



Brochure from the si xth World Jamboree. 
camp was decorated in a simple scout-like manner. The contin- 
gent did not take along any specially prepared camp constructions, 
thus it remained true to basic scout practice. Its greatest success 
was the Hungarian cuisine. Its folk dance group band and the 
hand puppet performers were praised unanimously. 

The content of foreign newspaper reports was mixed. Some 
papers praised conditions in Hungary, basing their opinion 
merely on the performance of the scouts. The majority of the 
newspapers presented a more informed picture, however. Their 
reporters had spent time with the members of the contingent and 



99 



obtained a realistic view from them. The latter newspapers were 
subjected to strong protestations on the part of the planted dele- 
gates of the contingent." 

After the Jamboree, more troops were forced to disband. 
Finally, in May, 1948, it was announced at the Harshegy training 
park that the Hungarian Boy Scout Association would be in- 
corporated into the state-controlled Uttord (Pioneer) Com- 
munist youth movement. 




JAM W REE 

1947 



Sixth World Jamboree, Moisson, France, 1947. Publicity siamp. 

The Hungarian people were unable to counteract this pressure, 
just as they could not stem the tragic tide of events which had 
begun to transform their homeland. This sad period of oppres- 
sion led to the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, during which 
scouting, too, reappeared. Surviving members of former troops 
began to reorganize. Former scouts reoccupied the building which 
had housed the scout headquarters and initiated plans to revive 
the Scout Association. The tragic end of the revolution frustrated 
a renewal. By this time, however, Hungarian scouting had taken 
root in the diaspora. 



100 



The Council Fire 



The Pax-Ting 

By Rose Kerr 

The Pax-Ting, so long awaited, so long discussed, lies no longer in the future, 
but in the past, no longer in the region of dream, but in the region of solid achieve- 
ment. Whatever convulsions may occur in Europe in the near future, at least 
we have the Pax-Ting to look back upon — a period of calm, a period of sunshine, 
a period of carefree happiness. 

The fact that it has been held and that it was a real triumph is due to the faith 
and courage of the Hungarian Girl Scouts, and principally to the unshakable 
determination of their Chief, Antonia Lindenmeyer. 

It was she who first conceived the idea of this World Camp, and during the 
two years during which the preparations have been in progress there have been 
many occasions when a weaker person would have given up hope and cancelled 
the camp. 

From many sources, both within and without her own country, came mes- 
sages of doubt and discouragement — all sorts of difficulties were put in the way, 
fear counseled prudence, but Antonia Lindenmeyer disregarded all fear and 
went calmly on her way. 

In the last circular issued before the beginning of the Pax-Ting she wrote: 
"We hope, with the blessing of our Lord, that this great event will be a gathering 
worthy of its high aims, a deepening of our world-wide sisterhood, an increase 
of strength and confidence, a making of real friendship in this time of world 
crisis." 

And surely we must believe that God's blessing did rest upon the Pax-Ting, 
which took place during a lull between the storms. Although the numbers were 
not so large as had originally been anticipated, a goodly number responded to 
the invitation, and it was the largest camp for girls which' has ever been held. 

There was some difficulty in ascertaining the exact numbers in camp — every- 
one had a different figure to give — but Roszi Zimmermann, who had the task 
of feeding the hungry multitudes, should surely know, and she told me there 
were 3,800. Of these about 2,200 were Hungarians, and the rest from other 
countries. 

The largest contingent were the Swedes, who had a splendid camp of 244 girls; 
they were very proud to have their Princess Sibylla camping with them, and they 
prepared a comfortable tent for her. 

The next largest contingent was from Great Britain; they numbered 206, and 
came from different ends of the earth; the Guides from England, Scotland and 
Wales were reinforced by individual Guidersand Rangers from India, Australia, 
New Zealand, Bermuda, Hong-Kong, Kenya, Malta, etc. On Visitors' Day 
the Indian Guider, in her attractive sari, received so much attention from public 
and Press that she finally had to be removed to the hospital tent for her own 
protection. 

Denmark, Norway, Suomi-Finland, the Netherlands, all sent fine contingents 
of well overa hundred in number. Slightly less numerous were the French, Swiss, 
Poles, Estonians and Irish, and there were three Guiders from Lithuania. 

The World Committee was represented by Miss Parm and Mrs. vanden Bosch 
— and the World Bureau by the Director (Mrs. Leigh- White), the Treasurer 
(Miss Fry), the Secretary (Miss Norris), and Mrs. Mark Kerr. These were all 
guests of the Hungarian Girl Guides, and Miss Lindenmeyer had also invited 



101 



a few old friends as special guests: Miss Bewley, Miss Warner, and, last but not 
least, Lady Ruggles-Brise, who, as Mrs. Essex Reade, was Chairman of the 
original International Council. It was a great pleasure to have her back among 
the Guides, and she distinguished herself at the last Camp Fire by making quite 
a long speech in Hungarian. 

These special guests were lodged in hotels in Budapest and Godollo, but 
spent most of their time in the camp. It might bethought that such a huge camp 
would be rather a blot on the landscape, but this was not the case. Godollo is a 
perfect place — it is a large camp; it is a big wooded park, and the various 
encampments were quite hidden away from each other among the trees. 

It was a never-ending source of interest and pleasure to wander along through 
the woods, for one was perpetually discovering some new "country" never seen 
before; the entrance gateways gave the clue to what country lay behind — a huge 
red rose and several sailing ships showed the way into England, a harp was set 
outside Ireland, and the various Hungarian camps had beautiful and elaborate 
entrances. 

The tents showed much variety in size and type, from the big marquee in the 
English group to the tiny kennel-like tents of some Hungarian Guides, from 
the Indian tee-pees of the Finnish group to the round orange-coloured tent, 
blown up pneumatically, which was Miss Lindenmeyer's sanctum. 

There were a few permanent buildings as well: the office, where the patient 
Hungarian staff were always on duty; the shop, where there was an interesting 
exhibition of handicrafts; the canteen, where there was always a queue for drinks 
and stamps; and one other long building in which two rooms had been prepared 
for the reception of Princess Sibylla and the Archduchess Anna; these were 
furnished with lovely old pieces of furniture, made in traditional Hungarian 
designs and colours. 

The March Past and the National Displays took place in the arena in the 
camp, where there was a tribune for visitors. Thus the camp was quite self-con- 
tained. Visitors were strictly limited to certain days and hours, and it was quite 
hard to get past the Guides who were acting Cerberus at the gates. The camp 
boundaries were patrolled by armed guards, who took a deep interest in the 
occupations of the campers, especially in their ablutions. 

The special events were many and various. The first in date was the ceremony 
at the tomb of the Unknown Warrior in Budapest; this is a very beautiful monu- 
ment. Mrs. van den Bosch laid on it the wreath of the World Association, and 
made a speech, which is given on page 60. 

On the same morning took plac the opening of the Guide Exhibition, which 
was is one of the principal museums of the city, the exhibits were all beautifully 
shown, in glass cases specially lent by the museum authorities, who had taken the 
greatest interest in the Exhibition. 

Several excursions were made; one of these was by steamer up the Danube 
to Esztergom, where there is a magnificent cathedral. Another day a large 
number went to Hortobagy, the Great Plain of Hungary, saw the huge herds 
of horned cattle, and were allowed to ride the horses of the men who round up 
the cattle. 

Much gracious hospitality was received by the special guests and the leaders 
of the contingents; a charming tea party was given by the Regent, Admiral 
Horthy, and his wife in the garden of the Royal Castle of Godollo; the Regent 
talked to almost every one of his guests, and won all hearts by his kindness and 
geniality. 

A delightful informal party was given by H.R.H. Archduchess Anna, at her 
home high up on a hill overlooking Budapest. The Guiders ate their supper 



102 



sitting on the steps of the terrace, and watched the lights of the city shine out as 
the darkness fell. 

Archduchess Anna is the Patroness of the Hungarian Guides; her gentleness, 
kindness and simplicity make her very much loved, and she is a real friend to 
all the Guiders. 

Kindness, courtesy and helpfulness are indeed the most marked characteristics 
of all the Hungarian Guides, and they were ideal hostesses. The "etiquette of 
the Pax-Ting," as given on page 57, had been carefully absorbed by them; 
they were always at hand to help, yet never obtruded themselves. 

Miss Lindenmeyer herself, with so much responsibility resting on her, never 
appeared fussed or worried, and always had time to stroll about talking to her 
guests, her two chief assistants, Zimmermann R6zsi and Wodetzky Maria, were 
always gay and smiling, and the others took their cue from them. 




Special stamps issued by the Royal Hungarian Government to celebrate 

the Pax- Ting. 

Besides the great Guide camp, there was also a small encampment of Tunderke 
(Brownies) in a school nearby. Here there were about sixty delightful children, 
under the care of an excellent Brown Owl. Each Pack had its own dormitory, 
which it had decorated with pictures, toys, and embroideries brought from 
home. Each bed was the perfection of neatness, with a coloured embroidered 
quilt on it. The Brownies love visitors, and sang and danced for them with great 
gusto. 

In fact, the spirit of the whole camp was one of warmhearted welcome; there 
was no vainglory or ostentation or "propaganda" — and we learned really to 
love the Hungarian Guides. 



103 



The feelings of all the guests were well summed up in the speech made by Mrs. 
Leigh-White at the Final campfire: 

"Although representing the World Bureau and the World Committee, 1 should 
like to think that I am also voicing the thoughts of every guest present at this 
Pax-Ting. 

"I want to express, firstly, unbounded admiration for the courageous way in 
which the Hungarian League of Girl Scouts, together with their able President, 
Miss Lindenmeyer, have prepared and carried out the arrangements for this great 
gathering. For some time past, we who work in the Bureau have seen the plans 
grow and develop, and now we have seen them blossom under our eyes like a 
lovely dream come true. 

"Secondly, the gratitude of us all for the wonderful welcome which we have 
received; for the great kindness which has been shown us on every side and the 
care which has been taken of us. 

"Thirdly, our appreciation of all the delights which have come to us; the 
beauty of the surroundings, the colour, the flowers, the fun, the interests, and the 
joy of new friendships. We canme from far and near, bringing with us not only 
our tents and our rucksacks, but our Promise and our Law, and when we met 
together, we exchanged our smiles and our songs and our desire for friendliness 
and simple enjoyments. 

"But for all this we are not forgetful of the difficulties and dangers of the days 
in which we live. Did we not, at the very commencement, when standing by the 
Unknown Soldier's Tomb, throw our minds back for a moment to the heroic 
memory of a great sacrifice? And now that it is time to pack up and turn our 
faces homeward, are we not each determined, with the help of God, that our 
gained experience and our new contacts shall give us fresh hope and strengthen 
in us the will for peace? 

"We who work in the World Bureau are delighted with the success of the 
Pax-Ting; it has given us great encouragement in our work, which is that of 
promoting the friendly contacts between the girls of all nations, because we be- 
lieve that in so doing we shall be working towards the realisation of another and a 
greater dream — that of establishing peace and friendship between all the peoples 
of the world. 

"Hungarian Girl Scouts, we congratulate you on your splendid effort, and 
we know that you have the gratitude of every member of our world sisterhood, 
both of those who are present at the Pax-Ting, and those who are not. We thank 
you, our sisters; we salute you." 



104